Introduction To Psychology Gateways To Mind And Behavior Chapter 14 Pdf
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Introduction to Psychology Gateways to Mind and Behavior
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The word will then be highlighted in yellow where every it appears in the guidance. Click on the enter key to move to the next word found. You have an option to print the entire Care Act guidance approximately pages or select a page range. Promoting wellbeing 2. Preventing, reducing or delaying needs 3. Information and advice 4. Market shaping and commissioning of adult care and support 5.
Managing provider failure and other service interruptions. Throughout this guidance document, the different chapters set out how a local authority should go about performing its care and support responsibilities. For this reason it is referred to throughout this guidance. It applies equally to adults with care and support needs and their carers [footnote 1]. There is no set approach — a local authority should consider each case on its own merits, consider what the person wants to achieve, and how the action which the local authority is taking may affect the wellbeing of the individual.
This is the core legal entitlement for adults to care and support, establishing one clear and consistent set of duties and power for all people who need care and support. The concept of meeting needs also recognises that modern care and support can be provided in any number of ways, with new models emerging all the time, rather than the previous legislation which focuses primarily on traditional models of residential and domiciliary care. However, in individual cases, it is likely that some aspects of wellbeing will be more relevant to the person than others.
Local authorities should adopt a flexible approach that allows for a focus on which aspects of wellbeing matter most to the individual concerned. During the assessment process, for instance, the local authority should explicitly consider the most relevant aspects of wellbeing to the individual concerned, and assess how their needs impact on them. Taking this approach will allow for the assessment to identify how care and support, or other services or resources in the local community, could help the person to achieve their outcomes.
To give another example, the concept of wellbeing is very important when responding to someone who self-neglects, where it will be crucial to work alongside the person, understanding how their past experiences influence current behaviour. The duty to promote wellbeing applies equally to those who, for a variety of reasons, may be difficult to engage. It should inform the delivery of universal services which are provided to all people in the local population, as well as being considered when meeting eligible needs.
Although the wellbeing principle applies specifically when the local authority performs an activity or task, or makes a decision, in relation to a person, the principle should also be considered by the local authority when it undertakes broader, strategic functions, such as planning, which are not in relation to one individual.
As such, wellbeing should be seen as the common theme around which care and support is built at local and national level. Building on the principles of the Mental Capacity Act, the local authority should assume that the person themselves knows best their own outcomes, goals and wellbeing.
Local authorities should not make assumptions as to what matters most to the person. Where particular views, feelings or beliefs including religious beliefs impact on the choices that a person may wish to make about their care, these should be taken into account. This is especially important where a person has expressed views in the past, but no longer has capacity to make decisions themselves.
Effective interventions at the right time can stop needs from escalating, and help people maintain their independence for longer see chapter 2 on prevention.
In decisions about them and being provided with the information and support necessary to enable the individual to participate. Care and support should be personal, and local authorities should not make decisions from which the person is excluded. People should be considered in the context of their families and support networks, not just as isolated individuals with needs. In any activity which a local authority undertakes, it should consider how to ensure that the person is and remains protected from abuse or neglect.
This is not confined only to safeguarding issues, but should be a general principle applied in every case including with those who self-neglect. For achieving the purpose for which the function is being exercised. Where the local authority has to take actions which restrict rights or freedoms, they should ensure that the course followed is the least restrictive necessary.
Concerns about self-neglect do not override this principle. The focus should be on supporting people to live as independently as possible for as long as possible. For some people, spiritual or religious beliefs will be of great significance, and should be taken into particular account. Local authorities should consider how to apply these further principles on a case-by-case basis.
This reflects the fact that every person is different and the matters of most importance to them will accordingly vary widely. The steps a local authority should take will depend entirely on the circumstances. The principles as a whole are not intended to specify the activities which should take place.
Instead, their purpose is to set common expectations for how local authorities should approach and engage with people. Supporting people to live as independently as possible, for as long as possible, is a guiding principle of the Care Act. See chapter 2 for more detail on approaches to prevention. Where someone is unable to fully participate in these conversations and has no one to help them, local authorities will arrange for an independent advocate.
Chapters 6 Assessment and eligibility , 10 Care and support planning , and 7 Independent advocacy discuss this in more detail. Chapter 15 integration and cooperation sets this out in more detail. In combination, the 2 Acts enable areas to prepare children and young people for adulthood from the earliest possible stage, including their transition to adult services.
This is considered in more detail at chapter It will be just as important for them to put in place a system where people have the information they need to take control of their care and support and choose the options that are right for them. People will have an opportunity to request their local authority support in the form of a direct payment that they can then use to buy their own care and support using this information.
Chapters 3 Information and advice and 12 Direct payments explain this in more detail. The Care Act ensures that people will be able to move to a different area without suddenly losing their care and support and provides clarity about who will be responsible for care and support in different situations. It also includes measures to help young people move to the adult care and support system, ensuring that no one finds themselves suddenly without care on turning Chapters 20 Continuity of care , 19 Ordinary residence and 16 Transition to adult care and support set this out in more detail.
The Care Act puts in place a new framework for adult safeguarding and includes measures to guard against provider failure to ensure this is managed without disruption to services. Chapters 14 Safeguarding , and 5 Managing provider failure set this out in more detail. Local authorities should make arrangements to have a qualified and registered social work professional practice lead in place to:. The principal social worker should also be visible across the organisation, from elected members and senior management, through to frontline social workers, people who use services and carers.
Local authorities should therefore ensure that the role is located where it can have the most impact and profile. This can take several different forms, including direct casework, co-working, undertaking practice development sessions, mentoring. This represents a fundamental shift in social work practice in relation to safeguarding, with a focus on the person not the process.
Local authorities should, therefore, ensure that principal social workers lead on ensuring the quality and consistency of social work practice in fulfilling its safeguarding responsibilities. In particular they should have extensive knowledge of the legal and social work response options to specific cases and in general.
To meet the challenges of the future, it will be vital that the care and support system intervenes early to support individuals, helps people retain or regain their skills and confidence, and prevents need or delays deterioration wherever possible.
This guidance sets out how local authorities should go about fulfilling their responsibilities, both individually and in partnership with other local organisations, communities, and people themselves. In considering how to give effect to their responsibilities, local authorities should consider the range of options available, and how those different approaches could support the needs of their local communities.
The use of such terms is aimed to illustrate what type of services, facilities and resources could be considered, arranged and provided as part of a prevention service, as well as to whom and when such services could be provided or arranged. However, services can cut across any or all of these 3 general approaches and as such the examples provided under each approach are not to be seen as limited to that particular approach.
Prevention should be seen as an ongoing consideration and not a single activity or intervention. These are services, facilities or resources provided or arranged that may help an individual avoid developing needs for care and support, or help a carer avoid developing support needs by maintaining independence and good health and promoting wellbeing.
They are generally universal for example, available to all services, which may include, but are not limited to interventions and advice that:. The main aim is to bring those people that feel socially isolated and lonely into their local communities. In an evaluation of a new hub there was significant improvement on a friendship scale with scores moving from people feeling isolated or with a low level of social support at the beginning of the hub to very or highly socially connected at follow up.
I look forward to Fridays each week and enjoy the social aspect of the club too. In order to identify those individuals most likely to benefit from such targeted services, local authorities may undertake screening or case-finding, for instance to identify individuals at risk of developing specific health conditions or experiencing certain events such as strokes, or falls , or those that have needs for care and support which are not currently met by the local authority.
Targeted interventions should also include approaches to identifying carers, including those who are taking on new caring responsibilities.
Carers can also benefit from support to help them develop the knowledge and skills to care effectively and look after their own health and wellbeing. Tertiary prevention could include, for example the rehabilitation of people who are severely sight impaired see also chapter 22 sight registers. This can help develop mechanisms to cope with stress associated with caring and help carers develop an awareness of their own physical and mental health needs.
Prevention services are, however, something that should always be considered. For example, at the end of life in relation to carers, prevention services could include the provision of pre-bereavement support.
The National Audit of Intermediate Care categorises 4 types of intermediate care:. Rehabilitation services can include provisions that help people attain independence and remain or return to their home and participate in their community, for example independent living skills and mobility training for people with visual impairment. This could involve, for instance, reaching beyond traditional health or care interventions to help people develop or regain the skills of independent living and active involvement in their local community.
These interventions may differ from those for people without caring responsibilities. Examples of services, facilities or resources that could contribute to preventing, delaying or reducing the needs of carers may include but is not limited to those which help carers to:. This is not creating or adding to their caring role but including them in an approach supporting the person to live as independently as possible for as long as possible.
In regard to carers, the local authority should consider how they can be supported to look after their own health and wellbeing and to have a life of their own alongside their caring responsibilities. For this group of people prevention needs to be considered through other means, such as the provision of community services and activities that would help support people to maintain an independent life.
The topics of sensation and perception are among the oldest and most important in all of psychology. People are equipped with senses such as sight, hearing and taste that help us to take in the world around us. Amazingly, our senses have the ability to convert real-world information into electrical information that can be processed by the brain. The way we interpret this information-- our How to install fog lights on a dodge ram This Web site gives you access to the rich tools and resources available for this text.
Argument field reports: Once a week, each student writes three paragraphs: 1 retell the most interesting argument you observed that week, 2 state why it is interesting to you, and 3 tell what should you learn from this. This assignment can be in a private journal but is best when shared with the class via online discussion board and class If you're having any problems, or would like to give some feedback, we'd love to hear from you. For general help, questions, and suggestions, try our dedicated support forums.
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Psychology is the science of mind and behavior. Psychology includes the study of conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought. It is an academic discipline of immense scope. Psychologists seek an understanding of the emergent properties of brains, and all the variety of phenomena linked to those emergent properties, joining this way the broader neuro-scientific group of researchers. As a social science, it aims to understand individuals and groups by establishing general principles and researching specific cases. In this field, a professional practitioner or researcher is called a psychologist and can be classified as a social, behavioral , or cognitive scientist.
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