Natural Hazards Earths Processes As Hazards Disasters And Catastrophes Pdf
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- Natural Hazards: Earth's Processes as Hazards, Disasters, and Catastrophes, 3rd Edition
- Natural Hazards & Disasters
- Natural Hazards & Disasters
Natural Hazards: Earth's Processes as Hazards, Disasters, and Catastrophes, 3rd Edition
In this chapter, we will elaborate on three basic terms in the field of disaster risk science: hazards, disasters, and risks. We will also discuss the classification, indexes, temporal and spatial patterns, and some other fundamental scientific problems that are related to these three terms.
In this chapter, we will elaborate on three basic terms in the field of disaster risk science: hazards, disasters and risks. According to the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction UNISDR , a hazard is a natural process or phenomenon that may pose negative impacts on the economy, society, and ecology, including both natural factors and human factors that are associated with the natural ones.
Hazards are the origins of disasters. Hazards are detrimental to the development of human beings and hinder the sustainability of the world. During the development of human beings, people have experienced and gradually understood all kinds of hazards. From different perspectives, disaster risk scientists studied on the classification, temporal and spatial patterns, and causes of hazards. In this section, we will focus on the different classifications of hazards.
Refer to research in natural disaster science and disaster geography for the temporal and spatial patterns of hazards. If you are interested in the causes of hazards, you may look up related research findings in geoscience, life science, and environmental science.
There are all kinds of hazards in human society. However, from the perspective of causes, hazards can be divided into two types, that is, hazards caused by natural factors and hazards caused by human factors that are associated with natural environments. In fact, the percentage of the former type of hazards is dwindling, while that of the latter type of hazards is increasing.
Geophysical hazard : a hazard originating from solid earth. This term can be used interchangeably with the term geological hazard. Hydrological hazard : a hazard caused by the occurrence, movement, and distribution of the surface and subsurface freshwater and saltwater. Meteorological hazard : a hazard caused by short-lived, micro- to mesoscale extreme weather and atmospheric conditions that last from minutes to days. Climatological hazard : a hazard caused by long-lived, meso- to macro-scale atmospheric processes ranging from intra-seasonal to multi-decadal climate variability.
There are 20 main events. They are earthquake, mass movement, volcanic activity, flood, landslide, wave action, convective storm, extratropical storm, extreme temperature, fog, tropical cyclone, drought, glacial lake outburst, wildfire, animal incident, disease, insect infestation, extra impact, airburst, and space weather. Gill and Malamud divided natural hazards into six groups. In the paper, he also estimated the temporal and spatial scales of different hazard groups and types.
Geophysical hazard : earthquake, tsunami, volcanic eruption, landslide, and snow avalanche. Shallow earth processes hazard : regional subsidence and uplift, local subsidence and heave, and ground collapse.
Atmospheric hazard : tropical cyclone, tornado, hail, snow, lightning and thunderstorm, long-term climatic change, and short-term climatic change. The hazard groups proposed by Joel C. Gill et al. Definitions of 21 hazards in the classification by Gill and Malamud These hazard groups contain 21 natural hazards, with the codes used in Gill et al. Each natural hazard is defined, and the component hazards are outlined. In the book Regions of Risk by Hewitt , hazards were divided into the following categories:.
Natural hazards include four types meteorological, hydrological, geological and geomorphological, biological and disease hazards. Technological hazards include hazardous materials, destructive processes, and hazardous designs. Social violence hazards include weapons, crime, and organized violence. Classification system of hazards by regions of risk Hewitt Another way to categorize hazards is based on the environment where hazards occur also called disaster-formative environment.
The classification based on causes emphasizes the origin of hazards, that is, whether the hazards are caused by natural factors, human factors, or the interaction between natural and human factors.
In contrast, the classification based on disaster-formative environment lays stress on the environmental basis of hazards, especially the distinctions among different spheres of the earth, and relatively ignores the causes. Actually, different kinds of hazards nowadays contain effects from both the natural and human factors to different degrees. And this is one of the important reasons why UN changed the goal of the global disaster reduction activities from natural disaster reduction to disaster risk reduction.
This classification highlights not only the occurrence environment but also the causes of hazards Shi The first level of this classification is focused on the causes, the second level the environments, the third level the types, and the fourth level the detailed hazards. The natural hazard system is then divided into four groups: atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere.
The hazards are mainly caused by natural environmental factors. The human hazard system includes three groups: technology, conflicts, and wars. The hazards are mainly caused by human environmental factors.
The environmental hazard system is made up of five groups: global change, environmental pollution, desertification, vegetation degradation, and environmental diseases. The hazards are due to integrated natural and human factors. The major natural hazards in China can be divided into 5 environments, 31 types, and subtypes based on the differences in disaster-formative environments.
Major natural hazards in China Wang et al. Drought spring drought, summer drought, autumn drought, winter drought, summer half year drought, mid-summer drought, spring drought in pastoral area, annual drought.
Hailstorm average annual number of days of hailstorm, annual maximum number of days of hailstorm. Extreme low temperatures maximum annual extreme low temperature, average annual extreme low temperature.
Frost freezing injury of winter wheat, freezing injury of subtropical economic orchard, chilling injury of tropical crops, chilling injury of Northeast China crops, cold dew wind. Ice and snow average annual snow accumulation, snow-driving wind and freezing, maximum snow depth and snow reference pressure, sea ice.
Sandstorm annual days of maximum sandstorm, average annual days of sandstorm, average annual frequency of sand-driving wind. Earthquake magnitude, earthquake fault, earthquake-induced collapse and landslide of bedrock, collapse and landslide of loess, liquefaction of sand soil. Crop disease rice disease, rice virus, wheat stripe rust, wheat gibberellic disease, powdery mildew, virus disease. Crop pest rice stem borer, migrating pests of rice, budworm, cotton pink bollworm, cotton aphid, big cotton aphid, red spider mite, verticillium wilt, blight, locust.
Forest disease and pest pine moth, trunk borer, variegate, bamboo locust, leaf cast and larch casebearer, pinewood nematode. Soil erosion water erosion, wind erosion, freeze—thaw erosion, wind—water erosion, hydrochemical erosion, divot slide, gravitational erosion.
Endemic disease Keshan disease, Kaschin—Beck disease, thyromegaly, crippling fluorosis. Environmental pollution exhaust emission, wastewater emission, land occupation of solid waste, storage volume of solid waste. Atmosphere including nine natural hazards—drought, typhoon, rainstorm, hailstorm, extreme low temperatures, frost, ice and snow, sandstorm, and dry-hot wind. Hydrosphere including five natural hazards—flood, waterlogging, storm surge, sea wave, and tsunami.
Lithosphere including five natural hazards—earthquake, landslide, debris flow, subsidence, and wind-drift sand. Biosphere including six natural hazards—crop diseases, crop pests, forest diseases and pests, rodents, poisonous weeds, and red tide.
Geosphere including six natural hazards—soil erosion, desertification, soil salinization, frozen soil, endemic disease, and environmental pollution. The intensity classification of single hazard is based on the measurement specifications and standards of hazards.
Hazards of different origins and in different environments are measured by different indicators. For example, earthquakes are measured in magnitude, rainstorms in rainfall intensity, typhoons in maximum sustained wind, and floods in flood stage. Those hazard measurement specifications and classification standards can be found on the Web sites of international or national departments of measurement standards. Generally speaking, meteorological departments set up the measurement specifications and classification standards for atmospheric hazards; hydrological or water resources, and oceanic administrations for hydrosphere hazards; geological and earthquake administrations for lithospheric hazards; agricultural, forestry, and health administrations for biosphere hazards; and environmental and land resources administrations for geosphere hazards.
A large number of observations show that there is a negative correlation between hazard intensity and frequency. In other words, the higher the intensity is, the lower the occurring frequency is and the longer the repeating period is. There is a power function relationship between the hazard intensity and the occurring frequency Chen and Shi Refer to textbooks or monographs on geoscience, life science and resources and environmental science for the intensity classification of single hazard.
The regional and integrated disaster risk research requires scientists to understand the diversity of hazards of different spatial and temporal scales and classify the intensities of multi-hazards. Because the measurement indicators vary among different hazards and there is no universal indicator, the intensity classification method for single hazard mentioned in the previous section will not be able to meet the needs of the regional and comprehensive studies of the diversity of hazards.
Based on current data, it is very difficult to synthesize various hazard intensities measured in different indicators. One way to get around this problem is to divide each kind of hazard intensity into relative levels and then calculate the average of levels weighted by the area that respective type of hazard covers during a certain period of time.
This method can approximately reflect the regional overall hazard intensities in a certain space and a certain period of time. But there is one problem with this method; that is, different hazards with the same level of relative intensity might have different impacts on hazard-affected bodies. Therefore, in order to eliminate this effect, another term is added—the weighted average of the loss rate of each hazard in a certain space and time period.
Referring to the quadrat method in the vegetation investigation, we proposed to use multiple degree to describe the abundance of hazards in a region. Another way to do this is similar to the multiple cropping index calculation in land-use research.
Based on Wang et al. Multiple degree H D : the clustering degree of hazards in a certain region. As a relative value changing with the compared region, it can be expressed as.
Relative intensity H i : the relative destructive or damaging ability of hazards. Relative intensity is a relative value and only a quantity of the hazard per se. It is not an obvious positive correlation with the disaster loss or damage but is the basic reason condition for the regional loss. It can be calculated as follows:. Covering index of hazards H c : the percentage of covering area of hazards in a region.
It can be expressed as. Composite index H : the sum of the three indexes mentioned above divided by the respective maximum values. The formula is. We will use the calculated results in Wang et al.
Natural Hazards & Disasters
Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences NHESS is a not-for-profit interdisciplinary and international journal dedicated to the public discussion and open-access publication of high-quality studies and original research on natural hazards and their consequences. Embracing a holistic Earth system science approach, NHESS serves a wide and diverse community of research scientists, practitioners, and decision makers concerned with detection of natural hazards, monitoring and modelling, vulnerability and risk assessment, and the design and implementation of mitigation and adaptation strategies, including economical, societal, and educational aspects. As part of NHESS' 20th-anniversary activities, we are approaching members of the natural hazards NH community to ask your expert opinion on the following: i three challenges facing our understanding of natural hazards; ii three broad steps or changes needed to address natural hazards and achieve sustainable development goals. Read more. EGU is seeking scientists who want to gain experience in the realm of scientific publishing to pre-screen manuscripts submitted to the Union's new online platform.
Cover Letter. Order Journal. Statement of Originality. Visitor Statistics. Mendeley Zotero Grammarly. Awotona, A.
The new revised fifth edition of Natural Hazards remains the go-to Natural Hazards: Earth's Processes as Hazards, Disasters, and Catastrophes book cover.
Natural Hazards & Disasters
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Course Context This is a general survey course with minimal prerequisites in basic reading and math skills. This course does not serve as a prerequisite for other courses, and does not count towards a major in the geological sciences.