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- 25908795 Sigmund Freud by Pamela Thurschwell Routledge Critical Thinkers
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Image by Max Halberstadt via Wikimedia Commons. For those who have primarily encountered Freud in intro to psych classes, these works can seem strange indeed, given the sweeping speculative claims the Viennese doctor makes about religion, war, ancient history, and even prehistory. In , psychoanalyst Ilse Grubich-Simitis discovered one of these essays in an old trunk belonging to a friend and colleague of Freud. Accordingly, mental illness can be understood as a set of formerly adaptive responses that have become maladaptive as the climatic and sociological threats to the survival of mankind have changed. But there are very good reasons why his work has thrived in literary theory and philosophy.
Sigmund Freud and the Art of Letter Writing
Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. Caliwan, J. Download PDF. A short summary of this paper. She is the author of Literature,Technology and Magical Thinking — The Routledge Critical Thinkers series provides the books you can turn to first when a new name or concept appears in your studies. The emphasis is on concise, clearly written guides which do not presuppose a specialist knowledge. Although the focus is on particular figures, the series stresses that no critical thinker ever existed in a vacuum but, instead, emerged from a broader intellectual, cultural and social history.
These books are necessary for a number of reasons. In his autobiography, Not Entitled, the literary critic Frank Kermode wrote of a time in the s: On beautiful summer lawns, young people lay together all night, recovering from their daytime exertions and listening to a troupe of Balinese musicians. But this series reflects a different world from the s.
New thinkers have emerged and the reputations of others have risen and fallen, as new research has developed. New methodologies and challenging ideas have spread through the arts and humanities. The study of literature is no longer — if it ever was — simply the study and evaluation of poems, novels and plays. It is also the study of the ideas, issues, and difficulties which arise in any literary text and in its interpretation.
Other arts and humanities subjects have changed in analogous ways. With these changes, new problems have emerged. To read only books on a thinker, rather than texts by that thinker, is to deny yourself a chance of making up your own mind.
To use a metaphor from the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein — , these books are ladders, to be thrown away after you have climbed to the next level. Finally, these books are necessary because, just as intellectual needs have changed, the education systems around the world — the contexts in which introductory books are usually read — have changed radically, too.
What was suitable for the minority higher education system of the s is not suitable for the larger, wider, more diverse, high tech- nology education systems of the twenty-first century.
These changes call not just for new, up-to-date, introductions but new methods of presentation. Each book in the series has a similar structure. They begin with a section offering an overview of the life and ideas of each thinker and explain why she or he is important.
In addition, there is a detailed final section suggesting and describing books for further reading. This section will guide you in your reading, enabling you to follow your interests and develop your own projects. Throughout each book, references are given in what is known as the Harvard system the author and the date of a works cited are given in the text and you can look up the full details in the bibliography at the back.
This offers a lot of information in very little space. The books also explain tech- nical terms and use boxes to describe events or ideas in more detail, away from the main emphasis of the discussion.
Boxes are also used at times to highlight definitions of terms frequently used or coined by a thinker. In this way, the boxes serve as a kind of glossary, easily identi- fied when flicking through the book. First, they are examined in the light of subjects which involve criticism: princi- pally literary studies or English and cultural studies, but also other disciplines which rely on the criticism of books, ideas, theories and unquestioned assumptions.
No introduction can tell you everything. However, by offering a way into critical thinking, this series hopes to begin to engage you in an activity which is productive, constructive and potentially life-changing. I would also like to thank everyone who has supported me through the writing of this, and everyone who told me that they had a really weird dream last night, particularly Jim Endersby.
The twentieth century has been called the Freudian century, and whatever the twenty-first century chooses to believe about the workings of the human mind, it will be, on some level, indebted to Freud of course, this may be a debt that involves reacting against his ideas as much as it involves subscribing to them. Rather they function like myths for our culture; taken together, they present a way of looking at the world that has been powerfully transformative.
The poet W. Putting psychoanalysis in context theoreti- cally and historically will allow us to understand better why, when we look around us, psychoanalytic ideas are pervasive, not only in univer- sity bookshops and psychiatric offices, but also in newspapers, movies, modern art exhibits, romantic fiction, self-help books and TV talk shows — in short, everywhere where we find our culture reflecting back images of ourselves.
Three key concepts are helpful to keep in mind when beginning to read Freud: sexuality, memory and interpretation. By thinking about the sometimes conflicting and complicated meanings of these three common words we can cover a lot of psychoanalytic ground. Psychoanalysis provides both a theory of the history of the individual mind — its early development, its frustrations and desires which include sexual, or what Freud calls libidinal, desires — and a set of specific therapeutic techniques for recalling, interpreting and coming to terms with that individual history.
Sex, memory, interpretation — psychoanalysis shows how these three apparently disparate terms are connected to each other. It is for his ideas about the importance of sexu- ality that Freud is perhaps most famous some would say notorious.
But why stress this other term, inter- pretation? A patient lying on a couch tells an analyst that he dreamt last night about a train going through a tunnel. The analyst exclaims, stroking his long white beard. The train is a phallic symbol and the tunnel a vaginal one: you were fantasising about having sex with your mother.
We might imagine this scene taking place in a movie making fun of psychoanalysis. Psychoanalysis is a theory of reading first and foremost; it suggests that there are always more meanings to any statement then there appear to be at first glance.
For the analyst a train is never just a train. Knowing how to read a dream, daydream or slip of the tongue — to unlock its symbolism and understand its multiple meanings, is a process not unlike reading a novel or a poem. When we read literature critically, we discover many different layers and meanings — some of which may contradict each other.
He revises and rewrites his early theories in his later work. His body of psychoanalytic writings spans the period from the s to his death in the late s; often he contradicts one of his own earlier ideas or finds evidence to suggest he was wrong the first time around.
Because of the length of time over which he wrote, and the breadth of his speculative and clin- ical thought, there are always different, often conflicting, positions to emphasise when reading Freud. Reading Freud properly means reading him carefully. The terrain that psychoanalysis explores is that of the individual psyche. But psychoanalytic terminology does not use soul in a religious sense.
Rather the psyche is the mental apparatus as it is defined in contrast to the body or the soma. A somatic illness is one that is caused by bodily rather than mental factors. Childhood wishes and memories live on in unconscious life, even if they have been erased from consciousness.
The next short chapter will provide a roughly chronological account of the early ideas that led to his initial development of psychoanalytic theory and practice. Freud was born on 6 May in the Moravian town of Freiberg. He was the son of a Jewish wool merchant, Jacob Freud and his third wife Amalie. When Freud was four his family moved to Vienna, where he would continue to live and work for the next seventy-nine years before being forced to leave because of the threat of Nazi persecution in In that year he and his family emigrated to England, where he died on 23 September If Freud created a revolution with his new ideas about sexuality and unconscious desires, the battles he fought were conceptual ones rather than active ones.
It is fair to say that he took the intellectual and cultural atmosphere he grew up in and made something new with it, yet he also worked within its limits.
The Vienna of the late nineteenth century was a contradictory city. Recent historians have pointed out that the Vienna bourgeoisie was overwhelmingly Jewish.
Although Jews made up only 10 per cent of the population of Vienna, more than half of the doctors and lawyers in the city in were Jewish Forrester With cultural advantages came backlash. Anti-Semitism was also a part of life in Vienna.
This sense of being in the opposition would stay with Freud for the rest of his life. In truth, there were, from the beginning, violent opponents of psychoanalytic ideas, but being in the opposition was also a stance that Freud relished: he enjoyed being the lone thinker, forging away at his revolutionary ideas without outside support.
In fact Freud did not work entirely in isolation, and understanding the influences on him can help enhance our understanding of the scientific, historical and cultural ground from which psychoanalysis sprang. As a boy Freud was intellectually precocious, learning many languages, including Greek, Latin, English, French and Hebrew. He began to read Shakespeare at the age of eight. He studied medicine at the University of Vienna from to , although his initial interest was in zoological rather than human science.
Consciousness itself could be explained through biological processes. Following on the mid-century discoveries of evolutionary theory — that humans, like other species of animals, had evolved and changed — nineteenth-century scientific and philosophical thought had embraced the concept that all life could be explained through the experimental methods of science. Yet Freud never gave up his determinist belief in the principles of cause and effect. His theories indicated that every hysterical symptom he exam- ined, every dream, every slip of the tongue, everything we say or think on a daily basis, has a cause.
It may not always be possible to uncover this cause, but it is there. He had no particular desire to practise medicine, but in he became engaged to Martha Bernays — and felt the economic pressures and responsibilities of a soon-to-be-married man planning on setting up a home and family.
Practising medicine paid more than research, and Freud eventually moved from studying the spinal cords of fishes to studying the human central nervous system. He set up his own medical practice, specialising in the nervous diseases, as well as becoming a lecturer in neuropathology at the University of Vienna in Soon he began to treat the middle- and upper-middle-class women patients whose hysterical illnesses led him to develop the theory of psychoanalysis see the next chapter, on Early Theories, for more on hysteria and these early patients.
Freud developed his radical ideas about nervous illness initially in Studies on Hysteria, a series of case histories he co-wrote with his colleague Joseph Breuer — He refined and changed the theory of psychoanalysis through the s and published his first major psychoanalytic work The Interpretation of Dreams in The book sold slowly at first.
Freud devoted his life to expanding and refining his theories and to establishing psychoanalysis as an institution. His first books are primarily concerned with questions of interpreta- tion — The Interpretation of Dreams with dream symbolism, Jokes and their Relation to the Unconscious with the meanings of jokes and The Psychopathology of Everyday Life with the meanings of slips of the tongue, mistakes, forgotten words, etc.
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other things, this meant that Freud's essays on art could serve as convenient and engaging illustrations o f his theories. Ever the canny explainer, he frequently.
25908795 Sigmund Freud by Pamela Thurschwell Routledge Critical Thinkers
Art history is the study of aesthetic objects and visual expression in historical and stylistic context. As a discipline, art history is distinguished from art criticism , which is concerned with establishing a relative artistic value upon individual works with respect to others of comparable style or sanctioning an entire style or movement; and art theory or " philosophy of art ", which is concerned with the fundamental nature of art. One branch of this area of study is aesthetics , which includes investigating the enigma of the sublime and determining the essence of beauty.
Freud was more interested in literature than painting and sculpture, as Louis Fraiberg and Richard Sterba note.
Psychological novel , work of fiction in which the thoughts, feelings, and motivations of the characters are of equal or greater interest than is the external action of the narrative. In a psychological novel the emotional reactions and internal states of the characters are influenced by and in turn trigger external events in a meaningful symbiosis. Its development coincided with the growth of psychology and the discoveries of Sigmund Freud , but it was not necessarily a result of this. In the psychological novel, plot is subordinate to and dependent upon the probing delineation of character. In the complex and ambiguous works of Franz Kafka , the subjective world is externalized, and events that appear to be happening in reality are governed by the subjective logic of dreams. Psychological novel Article Media Additional Info.
Чатрукьян не был бы так раздражен, если бы ТРАНСТЕКСТ был его единственной заботой. Однако это было не .
Она попыталась бороться, но тело ее не слушалось. Она точно окаменела. И закрыла. О Боже, пожалуйста.
Ну вот, на Мидж снова что-то нашло. - Если Стратмор не забил тревогу, то зачем тревожиться. - Да в шифровалке темно как в аду, черт тебя дери. - Может быть, Стратмор решил посмотреть на звезды. - Джабба, мне не до шуток.
Он разглядывал роскошную внутреннюю отделку, выстроившиеся в ряд компьютеры, диваны, книжные полки, залитые мягким светом. Увидав королеву шифровалки Сьюзан Флетчер, Чатрукьян моментально отвел. Он боялся ее как огня.