File Name: types of drug interactions and examples .zip
It is important to know the possible drug interactions as these can cause serious adverse reactions or result in failed therapy. Drug-drug interactions result when two or more drugs react with each other.
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- Drug Interactions—Principles, Examples and Clinical Consequences
Oxford University Press makes no representation, express or implied, that the drug dosages in this book are correct. Readers must therefore always check the product information and clinical procedures with the most up to date published product information and data sheets provided by the manufacturers and the most recent codes of conduct and safety regulations. The authors and the publishers do not accept responsibility or legal liability for any errors in the text or for the misuse or misapplication of material in this work.
A drug-drug interaction may increase or decrease the effects of one or both drugs. Adverse effects or therapeutic failure may result. Rarely, clinicians can use predictable drug-drug interactions to produce a desired therapeutic effect. For example, coadministration of lopinavir and ritonavir to patients with HIV infection results in altered metabolism of lopinavir and increases serum lopinavir concentrations and effectiveness. Concurrent use of another drug that increases the action of these drugs further increases risk of adverse effects. For additional research on potential drug-drug interactions, consult a reliable source, such as Drug.
It is important to know the possible drug interactions as these can cause serious adverse reactions or result in failed therapy. Drug-drug interactions result when two or more drugs react with each other. Drugs with a narrow therapeutic range little difference between therapeutic and lethal dose are more likely to face incidents of serious drug interactions. For example: Taking digoxin with antibiotics like erythromycin or clarithromycin will increase the toxicity of digoxin because antibiotics affect the liver enzymes, causing digoxin to be metabolized inactivated slower. Similarly, the concurrent use of methotrexate and ibuprofen may result in increased methotrexate toxicity due to inhibition of kidney excretion by ibuprofen. The effectiveness of drugs may be reduced in situations where the action of one drug diminishes the action of the other.
Drug interactions can have desired, reduced or unwanted effects. The probability of interactions increases with the number of drugs taken. The high rate of prescribed drugs in elderly patients year-old patients take an average of 5 drugs increases the likelihood of drug interactions and thus the risk that drugs themselves can be the cause of hospitalization. Drug interactions occur on pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic levels. Examples of pharmacodynamic interactions are simultaneous administration of a NSAID and phenprocoumon additive interaction , or of aspirin and ibuprofen antagonistic interaction.
Concepts in Biochemical Pharmacology pp Cite as. Drugs may frequently interact adversely to cause drug toxicity or render a needed therapy ineffective. The situation is compounded by the current pattern of drug usage in which approximately ten different drugs are received by the average patient in the hospital.
For example, patients with epilepsy have increased chances of drug interaction, compared with those with other disease states. Thus, there is little room for error when using these drugs. Compromised renal function or changes in the cytochrome P enzymes also can increase the risk of experiencing a severe adverse drug event. Clearly, it is important for pharmacists to recognize and understand which drug interactions can result in significant patient harm.
Metrics details. Drug—drug interactions DDIs may lead to adverse effects and potentially result in drug withdrawal from the market. Predicting DDIs during drug development would help reduce development costs and time by rigorous evaluation of drug candidates.
Drug Interactions—Principles, Examples and Clinical Consequences
Start typing a drug name and select the best match from the list of suggestions. Repeat the process to add multiple drugs. Once your list is complete, you can check for interactions immediately or save your list for future reference. To view your previously saved lists , please sign in. Anytime you take more than one medication, or even mix it with certain foods, beverages, or over-the-counter medicines, you are at risk of a drug interaction. Most drug interactions are not serious, but because a few are, it is important to understand the possible outcome before you take your medications. Checking for a drug interaction before it occurs can drastically lower your chance of a problem.
We live in a world where incredible drugs exist to treat many conditions that seemed untouchable in the past. In a report that looked at U. However, the impressive availability of medications also increases the possibility of drug interactions.
Pharmacodynamic drug–drug interactions occur when interacting drugs have Table 1 examples of drug classes containing several narrow therapeutic index.
ГЛАВА 83 Беккеровская веспа, без сомнения, была самым миниатюрным транспортным средством, когда-либо передвигавшимся по шоссе, ведущему в севильский аэропорт. Наибольшая скорость, которую она развивала, достигала 50 миль в час, причем делала это со страшным воем, напоминая скорее циркулярную пилу, а не мотоцикл, и, увы, ей не хватало слишком много лошадиных сил, чтобы взмыть в воздух. В боковое зеркало заднего вида он увидел, как такси выехало на темное шоссе в сотне метров позади него и сразу же стало сокращать дистанцию. Беккер смотрел прямо перед. Вдалеке, метрах в пятистах, на фоне ночного неба возникли силуэты самолетных ангаров.