Precautions And Safety From Microbial Hazards Pdf
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- Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (BMBL) 6th Edition
- Food production and food safety
- A Guide to the Most Common Workplace Hazards
- Causes and Prevention of Foodborne Illness
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Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (BMBL) 6th Edition
Causes and Prevention of Foodborne Illness. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention CDC estimates roughly 1 in 6 Americans 48 million people get sick, , are hospitalized, and 3, die of foodborne diseases each year. Symptoms of foodborne illness include upset stomach, abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fever, and dehydration; they can range from mild to severe and death. Foodborne illness can affect anyone who eats contaminated food; however, certain populations are more susceptible to becoming ill with a greater severity of illness.
These populations include infants and children, the elderly, pregnant women, people taking certain kinds of medications or immune suppressed e. To prevent foodborne illness, it is necessary to understand how food becomes unsafe to eat and what proactive measures can be taken to keep food safe. Chemical hazards include natural toxins and chemical contaminants. Some natural toxins are associated with the food itself i. Some additives, such as sulfites, can be a hazard to some people.
Chemical contamination can occur when products i. Bacteria are single-celled organisms which multiply by cell division, under appropriate environmental conditions. The conditions that influence bacterial growth are the food itself, acidity, time, temperature, oxygen, and moisture. Most bacteria need nutrients to survive. They obtain these nutrients from food. Bacteria grow best in food that is neutral to slightly acidic acidity is measured by pH.
Microorganisms have different acidity pH , temperature, and oxygen requirements for optimal growth. Some bacteria require oxygen to grow aerobic , some grow when there is no oxygen anaerobic , and some can grow with or without oxygen facultative. Bacteria will grow when food and water is available. If water is bound or tied up with, for example salts or sugars, it is not available to be used by bacteria.
This concept of available water is referred to as water activity Aw. Molds are a multi-cellular fungi that reproduce by fruiting bodies that break and release thousands of microscopic mold spores, each capable of growing under the right conditions. Molds prefer damp, dark environments for optimal growth and they grow readily on almost any food, as well as walls, ceilings, and other areas of high moisture.
Some molds produce toxins that can cause illness. Viruses are the smallest known organisms. They cannot multiply in food—they need a human host. Viruses are transmitted to food from infected people. Parasites include worms and protozoa. They cannot multiply in food; they multiply in a host cell.
Pathogens can cause different types of foodborne illness. Once a contaminated food is eaten, illness can be caused by the pathogens themselves foodborne infection ; caused by toxins produced in the food by pathogens foodborne intoxication ; and caused by toxins produced in the body by pathogens foodborne toxin-mediated infection.
CLEAN: Wash hands and food contact surfaces and utensils often, between tasks, and if they have become contaminated. Sanitizing involves the use of high heat e. Cross contamination is the transfer of harmful bacteria from uncooked food products e.
Not only is it important to monitor the refrigerator temperature chill foods ; but using a thermometer is the only reliable way to ensure that a food is properly cooked. Food thermometers come in several types and styles and range in level of technology and price.
Those sites are listed in the resources section. Finally, pop-up temperature devices are commonly found in turkeys or oven roaster chickens.
These devices have been around for a long time and indicate that the food has come to the correct temperature for safety. However, while these pop-up thermometers are reliable, it is often recommended that the temperature be checked in several places with a conventional thermometer to be sure.
Cold temperatures slow the growth of harmful bacteria. Cold air must circulate to help keep food safe, so do not over fill the refrigerator.
Place an appliance thermometer in the rear portion of the refrigerator, and monitor regularly. Skip to content — Skip to search. The University of Rhode Island. Email eCampus Sakai Handshake. Foodborne Illness Statistics The Center for Disease Control and Prevention CDC estimates roughly 1 in 6 Americans 48 million people get sick, , are hospitalized, and 3, die of foodborne diseases each year.
Causes of Foodborne Illness The causes fall into the following 3 categories: Biological hazards include bacteria, viruses, and parasites. Bacteria and viruses are responsible for most foodborne illnesses. Biological hazards are the biggest threat to food safety. They can be inherent in the product or due to mishandling e. Food allergens are a chemical hazard. Some people are sensitive to proteins in foods. Every food is different.
Eight major food allergens include milk, eggs, fish, crustacean shellfish lobster, crab, shrimp , wheat, soy, peanuts, tree nuts.
Physical hazards can include metal shavings from cans and plastic pieces or broken glass. Microbiology of Foodborne Illness Bacteria are single-celled organisms which multiply by cell division, under appropriate environmental conditions. Some bacteria can be further categorized: Some bacteria are spore formers.
The spore protects the organism during periods of environmental stress. When the conditions become suitable, the organism germinates from the spore and continues the growth cycle. Some bacteria produce toxins that cause illness. Types of Foodborne Illness Pathogens can cause different types of foodborne illness. Prevention of Foodborne Illness Follow these 4 simple steps to keep food safe: CLEAN: Wash hands and food contact surfaces and utensils often, between tasks, and if they have become contaminated.
Wash hands with warm water and soap for 20 seconds and dry with a disposable paper towel or clean hand cloth. Alcohol based hand sanitizers are not a replacement for handwashing. They are not effective if the hands are dirty, they are not effective against Norovirus, and they do not eliminate all types of microorganisms. Wash cutting boards, dishes, and utensils after preparing each food item and before you use it for the next food.
Use hot, soapy water, rinse with hot water, and air dry or dry with a clean paper towel or clean dish cloth. Or wash in the dishwasher.
Wash countertops after preparing each food item and before you use it for the next food. Use paper towels or clean dish cloths to wipe kitchen surfaces or spills. Wash countertops with hot soapy water, rinse with hot water and air dry or dry with a clean paper towel or clean dish cloth. To sanitize for added protection for bacteria on surfaces, you can use the following: Dilute mixtures of chlorine bleach and water are a cost-effective method of sanitation.
Chlorine bleach is a very effective sanitizer. It comes in several concentrations. If bleach is 8. Apply to the cleaned countertop and allow to sit for minutes and air dry or dry with a clean paper towel. Alternatively, commercial products for sanitizing the home kitchen are available. Follow manufacturer instruction for use. Wash dish cloths often in a washing machine. Store sponge in a place so it can dry after use. To lower the risk of cross-contamination, sanitize the dish sponge often: Soak in a chlorine bleach solution for 1 min.
Put sponge in dishwasher cycle. Replace the dish sponge often. Prevent cross contamination when grocery shopping. Physically separate raw meat, fish and poultry to prevent their juices from dripping onto other foods. This can be done by: Segregating raw meat, fish and poultry on one side of the shopping cart. Placing raw meat, fish and poultry in separate plastic bags e.
Designate reusable bags for grocery shopping only. Reusable bags for raw meat, fish, or poultry should never be used for ready-to-eat products. Frequently wash bags. Cloth bags should be washed in a machine and machine dried or air-dried. Plastic-lined bags should be scrubbed using hot water and soap and air-dried.
Separate raw meat, fish and poultry in disposable plastic bags before putting them in a reusable bag Check that both cloth and plastic-lined reusable bags are completely dry before storing. Prevent cross contamination when storing food in the refrigerator. In the refrigerator, store raw meats, fish, and poultry below ready-to-eat and cooked foods. When thawing frozen raw meat, fish and poultry, put the food in a plastic bag or on a plate on the lowest shelf to prevent juices from dripping onto other foods.
After thawing in the refrigerator, food should remain safe and of good quality for a few days before cooking. Food thawed in the refrigerator can be refrozen without cooking, although quality may be impacted.
See Chill section for other methods for thawing.
Food production and food safety
Most food is now produced by large farms, processed industrially, and sold in supermarkets and multinational food outlets. Modern food production has reduced the cost and increased the variety of food available, but this centralisation of the food supply presents an opportunity for foodborne pathogens and toxins to infect and poison large numbers of consumers. The centralisation and globalisation of foods increase the likelihood of pandemics of foodborne disease. People in developing countries are at greater risk from naturally occurring toxicants, foodborne disease, and contaminants in the food chain. Concerted action needs to be taken to prohibit the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in animal production.
Causes and Prevention of Foodborne Illness. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention CDC estimates roughly 1 in 6 Americans 48 million people get sick, , are hospitalized, and 3, die of foodborne diseases each year. Symptoms of foodborne illness include upset stomach, abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fever, and dehydration; they can range from mild to severe and death. Foodborne illness can affect anyone who eats contaminated food; however, certain populations are more susceptible to becoming ill with a greater severity of illness. These populations include infants and children, the elderly, pregnant women, people taking certain kinds of medications or immune suppressed e.
A Guide to the Most Common Workplace Hazards
To complete the first step in any workplace risk assessment, you must identify the hazards in your workplace. Not all hazards are obvious and they will be unique to your workplace. Therefore, we have created this guide to help you understand the different categories of hazards and where they might be present. The rest of this article focuses on hazards, including where they might be found in different workplaces.
Causes and Prevention of Foodborne Illness
Micro-organisms affect every aspect of life on Earth. Some microbes cause disease but the majority are completely harmless. More on About Microbiology. Micro-organisms can be used to demonstrate principles of biology and to model industrial processes, as well as offering opportunities for teaching across the curriculum. More on Teachers. If you imagine Earth began as a single day: Microbes appeared at 5am, Dinosaurs appeared at 10pm
Food safety preventive measures have been focused on training of handlers in hygiene practices and on improving the sanitary quality of meals. In Europe, an increasing trend in foodborne outbreaks has been attributed to catering businesses. This fact highlights that the impact of preventive measures in the past few years has not been sufficiently effective as expected. Special attention should be paid to food services destined to susceptible population, such as hospitals, long-term care facilities, or school canteens, because people could be more susceptible to become ill when exposed to foodborne agents. There are numerous relevant factors influencing microbial contamination of foods, according to the preparation method, hygienic sanitary conditions of catering facilities, or food handling, storage, and distribution. In the present chapter, a review of the most significant risk factors influencing microbial contamination of foods in food service centers are described with special focus on those establishments where susceptible population i. Besides, potential preventive measures to be considered in that establishments and correct implementation of food safety actions are given to provide useful recommendations to food handlers, food operators, and risk managers.
For further information on the joint FAO/WHO activities on microbiological risk assessment, please contact: Department of Food Safety, Zoonoses and Foodborne Disease All reasonable precautions have been taken by FAO and WHO to verify Harvesting either by machine or manual labour each has their own risks.