Auxin Biosynthesis And Its Role In Plant Development Pdf
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- Auxin and Its Role in Plant Development
- Auxin biosynthesis and its role in plant development
- Regulation of Lignin Biosynthesis and Its Role in Growth-Defense Tradeoffs
YUCCA4 overexpression modulates auxin biosynthesis and transport and influences plant growth and development via crosstalk with abscisic acid in Arabidopsis thaliana.
Auxins play a cardinal role in coordination of many growth and behavioral processes in plant life cycles and are essential for plant body development. The Dutch biologist Frits Warmolt Went first described auxins and their role in plant growth in the s. Thimann became the first to isolate one of these phytohormones and to determine its chemical structure as indoleacetic acid IAA. Went and Thimann co-authored a book on plant hormones, Phytohormones , in Auxins were the first of the major plant hormones to be discovered.
Auxin and Its Role in Plant Development
The plant hormone auxin, which is predominantly represented by indoleacetic acid IAA , is involved in the regulation of plant growth and development. Although IAA was the first plant hormone identified, the biosynthetic pathway at the genetic level has remained unclear. Two major pathways for IAA biosynthesis have been proposed: the tryptophan Trp -independent and Trp-dependent pathways. Although different plant species may have unique strategies and modifications to optimize their metabolic pathways, plants would be expected to share evolutionarily conserved core mechanisms for auxin biosynthesis because IAA is a fundamental substance in the plant life cycle. In this review, the genes now known to be involved in auxin biosynthesis are summarized and the major IAA biosynthetic pathway distributed widely in the plant kingdom is discussed on the basis of biochemical and molecular biological findings and bioinformatics studies. This phytohormone auxin is a key regulator of many aspects of plant growth and development, including cell division and elongation, differentiation, tropisms, apical dominance, senescence, abscission, and flowering Woodward and Bartel, ; Teale et al. Although much progress has been made in defining IAA signalling pathways, the biosynthesis of IAA and its regulation by environmental and developmental signals remain poorly understood.
Auxin biosynthesis and its role in plant development
Indoleacetic acid IAA , the main auxin in higher plants, has profound effects on plant growth and development. Both plants and some plant pathogens can produce IAA to modulate plant growth. While the genes and biochemical reactions for auxin biosynthesis in some plant pathogens are well understood, elucidation of the mechanisms by which plants produce auxin has proven to be difficult. So far, no complete pathway of de novo auxin biosynthesis in plants has been firmly established. However, recent studies have led to the discoveries of several genes in tryptophan dependent auxin biosynthesis pathways. Recent findings have also revealed that local auxin biosynthesis plays essential roles in many developmental processes including gametogenesis, embryogenesis, seedling growth, vascular patterning, and flower development. In this review, I summarize the recent advances in dissecting auxin biosynthetic pathways and how the understanding of auxin biosynthesis provides a different angle for analyzing the mechanisms of plant development.
Regulation of Lignin Biosynthesis and Its Role in Growth-Defense Tradeoffs
This process is thought to involve readjusting resource allocation to different pathways. It has been frequently observed that among secondary cell wall components, alteration in lignin biosynthesis results in changes in both growth and defense. How this process is regulated, leading to growth or defense, remains largely elusive.
Plant architecture is one of the key factors that affect plant survival and productivity.
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