Electrical And Magnetic Properties Of Materials Pdf
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Magnetic Properties of Electronic Materials
Introduction to Engineering Materials pp Cite as. The conduction of electricity through a material is the transference of an electrical charge from one position to another. The charge may be transferred by movement of electrons, or by the migration of ions. Conduction in metals is due to electron migration, but it is the movement of ions that is responsible for the conductivity of electrolytes and for the very low conductivities observed in some insulating materials. Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
This work reviews basic concepts from both traditional macroscopic magnetism and unconventional magnetism, in order to understand current and future developments of submicronic spin-based electronics, where the interplay of electronic and magnetic properties is crucial. Traditional magnetism is based on macroscopic observation and physical quantities are deduced from classical electromagnetism. Physical interpretations are usually made with reference to atomic magnetism, where localized magnetic moments and atomic physics prevail, despite the fact that standard ferromagnetic materials such as Fe, Co and Ni are not localized-type magnets they have extended s and localised d electronic states. While this picture might be enough to understand some aspects of traditional storage and electromechanics, it is not sufficient when describing condensed matter systems with smaller length scales progressing toward the nanometer range. In this case, the precise nature of the magnetism localized, free or itinerant as in Fe, Co and Ni transition metals should be accounted for, along with the simultaneous presence of charge and spin on carriers. In addition, when we deal with the thin films or multilayers found in conventional electronics, or with objects of reduced dimensionality such as wires, pillars, dots or grains , the magnetic properties are expected to be different from conventional three-dimensional bulk systems. This chapter is organized as follows.
Electrical and Magnetic Properties
Materials have different properties depending on what they are used for. Some materials are hard, others are soft. These are types of materials most commonly used in everyday life are given below. Physical properties of material are those which can be observed without change of identity of material. Physical properties of metals are density, color, size and shape, specific gravity of material, porosity etc. Some of these are defined as below.
Magnetism is a class of physical phenomena that are mediated by magnetic fields. Electric currents and the magnetic moments of elementary particles give rise to a magnetic field, which acts on other currents and magnetic moments. Magnetism is one aspect of the combined phenomenon of electromagnetism. The most familiar effects occur in ferromagnetic materials, which are strongly attracted by magnetic fields and can be magnetized to become permanent magnets , producing magnetic fields themselves. Demagnetizing a magnet is also possible.
Premium Membership. All materials have magnetic properties. These characteristic properties may be divided into five groups as follows:. Only ferromagnetic and ferrimagnetic materials have properties which are useful in practical applications. Ferromagnetic properties are confined almost entirely to iron, nickel and cobalt and their alloys.
of interaction occur simultaneously. Such materials do occur and are known as ferrimagnets. The best known material exhibiting this phenomenon is magnetite (Fe.
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