File Name: oxidative stress exercise and aging .zip
- Oxidative stress, aging, and diseases
- Antioxidant and Oxidative Stress: A Mutual Interplay in Age-Related Diseases
- Oxidative stress, aging, and diseases
- Exercise and hormesis: oxidative stress-related adaptation for successful aging
Oxidative stress, aging, and diseases
There is mounting evidence based on epidemiologic and experimental studies that physical activity and exercise training combat the sequels of aging. Physical activity is defined as any bodily movement coordinated by skeletal muscles, which increases energy expenditure over resting condition [ 1 ], whereas exercise training is a more regular and structured form of physical activity. Higher levels of physical activity and regular exercise are associated with reduced risks of all-cause mortality [ 2 — 20 ] and also with increased longevity [ 18 , 21 — 23 ]. In fact, the World Health Organization has identified physical inactivity as the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality [ 24 ]. Furthermore, physical activity and exercise training reduce the risk of age-associated diseases, namely, cardiovascular diseases [ 4 , 10 , 25 — 31 ], type 2 diabetes [ 32 ], metabolic syndrome [ 33 ], colon cancer [ 34 ], obesity [ 35 ], osteoporosis [ 36 ], sarcopenia [ 37 ], anxiety [ 38 ], and cognitive impairment [ 39 — 41 ]. Most importantly, exercise improves the quality of life of elderly people [ 42 , 43 ]. Age is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases CVDs [ 44 , 45 ].
Antioxidant and Oxidative Stress: A Mutual Interplay in Age-Related Diseases
The aim of this study was to evaluate whether oxidative stress markers and biomarkers of muscle injury would be affected by aging at rest and in response to an incremental exhaustive exercise. Fifteen young MDA has increased only in the older group 0. CK increased in both groups young group: These findings indicate that aging is associated with a decrease in antioxidant efficiency and an increase in oxidative stress damage. Furthermore, older adults would not more susceptible to exercise-induced muscle injury than young people. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Oxidative stress is an imbalance of free radicals and antioxidants in the body, which can lead to cell and tissue damage. Oxidative stress occurs naturally and plays a role in the aging process. A large body of scientific evidence suggests that long-term oxidative stress contributes to the development in a range of chronic conditions. Such conditions include cancer , diabetes , and heart disease. In this article, we explore what oxidative stress is, how it affects the body, and how to reduce it. Oxidative stress can occur when there is an imbalance of free radicals and antioxidants in the body.
Oxidative stress: Role of physical exercise and antioxidant nutraceuticals in adulthood and aging. March ; Oncotarget 9(24).
Oxidative stress, aging, and diseases
The hormesis theory purports that biological systems respond with a bell-shaped curve to exposure to chemicals, toxins, and radiation. Here we extend the hormesis theory to include reactive oxygen species ROS. We further suggest that the beneficial effects of regular exercise are partly based on the ROS generating capability of exercise, which is in the stimulation range of ROS production. Therefore, we suggest that exercise-induced ROS production plays a role in the induction of antioxidants, DNA repair and protein degrading enzymes, resulting in decreases in the incidence of oxidative stress-related diseases and retardation of the aging process.
Oxidative stress is the total burden placed on organisms by the constant production of free radicals in the normal course of metabolism plus whatever other pressures the environment brings to bear natural and artificial radiation, toxins in air, food and water; and miscellaneous sources of oxidizing activity, such as tobacco smoke. The positive health benefits stemming from physical activity are well-established. Just 30 minutes a day of moderate-intensity exercise reduces the rate of developing various non-communicable diseases including diabetes and atherosclerosis. Noteworthy is that, despite of an unclear explanation, there are epidemiological data that paradoxically imply that a very high volume of energy expenditure is related to a decrease in cardiovascular health. Although aerobic exercise has been shown to increase antioxidant defences and therefore provide a protective effect against oxidative stress , an increase in oxidative stress stemming from a very high volume of aerobic exercise may contribute to the progression of arterial hardening atherosclerosis via oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein LDL within the arterial wall.
Skeletal muscle has the unique ability to increase the rate of oxygen usage during contraction.
Exercise and hormesis: oxidative stress-related adaptation for successful aging
Metrics details. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different levels of exercise on markers of oxidative stress and selected metabolic parameters in Ghanaian young adults. The study provides a first report on the risk associated with increase in oxidative stress and the importance of walking as a health promotion intervention among young Ghanaian adults. There is little doubt that physical exercise improves quality of life, reduces oxidative damage and prevents the incidence of several disorders including diabetes and cardiovascular disease [ 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 ]. Beneficial effects on the antioxidant system have also been reported [ 6 , 7 ]. There is, however a continuous debate on exercise type, intensity, frequency and duration, on the health of an individual.
Aging is the progressive loss of organ and tissue function over time. Growing older is positively linked to cognitive and biological degeneration such as physical frailty, psychological impairment, and cognitive decline. Oxidative stress is considered as an imbalance between pro- and antioxidant species, which results in molecular and cellular damage.
Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species RONS are produced by several endogenous and exogenous processes, and their negative effects are neutralized by antioxidant defenses. Oxidative stress occurs from the imbalance between RONS production and these antioxidant defenses. Aging is a process characterized by the progressive loss of tissue and organ function. The oxidative stress theory of aging is based on the hypothesis that age-associated functional losses are due to the accumulation of RONS-induced damages. At the same time, oxidative stress is involved in several age-related conditions ie, cardiovascular diseases [CVDs], chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic kidney disease, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer , including sarcopenia and frailty. Given the important role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of many clinical conditions and aging, antioxidant therapy could positively affect the natural history of several diseases, but further investigation is needed to evaluate the real efficacy of these therapeutic interventions. The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of literature on this complex topic of ever increasing interest.
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Physical exercise is considered to be one of the beneficial factors of a proper lifestyle and is nowadays seen as an indispensable element for good health, able to lower the risk of disorders of the cardiovascular, endocrine and osteomuscular apparatus, immune system diseases and the onset of potential neoplasms. A moderate and programmed physical exercise has often been reported to be therapeutic both in the adulthood and in aging, since capable to promote fitness. Regular exercise alleviates the negative effects caused by free radicals and offers many health benefits, including reduced risk of all-cause mortality, sarcopenia in the skeletal muscle, chronic disease, and premature death in elderly people.
Стратмор вздохнул: - Двадцать лет назад никто не мог себе представить, что мы научимся взламывать ключи объемом в двенадцать бит. Но технология не стоит на месте. Производители программного обеспечения исходят из того, что рано или поздно появятся компьютеры типа ТРАНСТЕКСТА. Технология развивается в геометрической профессии, и рано или поздно алгоритмы, которыми пользуется общество, перестанут быть надежными. Понадобятся лучшие алгоритмы, чтобы противостоять компьютерам завтрашнего дня.
Это была вынужденная мера. Фонтейн почти во всем полагался на Стратмора и верил в его план, в том числе и в достойную сожаления, но неизбежную необходимость устранять Энсея Танкадо и в переделку Цифровой крепости, - все это было правильно. Но одно не давало Фонтейну покоя - то, что Стратмор решил прибегнуть к услугам Халохота.