File Name: environmental policy and politics kraft .zip
Communicative Action. In the face of renewed challenges to longstanding environmental policy, as well as global pressures to extract increasing quantities of resources despite growing scarcity, this course will revisit a foundational debate in environmental ethics: namely, whether we have obligations to preserve non-rational nature.
- Environmental Policy and Politics
- Environmental Policy and Politics
- Environmental Policy: New Directions for the Twenty-First Century
The environmental impact of paper is significant, which has led to changes in industry and behaviour at both business and personal levels.
Environmental Policy and Politics
The environmental impact of paper is significant, which has led to changes in industry and behaviour at both business and personal levels. With the use of modern technology such as the printing press and the highly mechanized harvesting of wood , disposable paper became a relatively cheap commodity, which led to a high level of consumption and waste. The rise in global environmental issues such as air and water pollution, climate change, overflowing landfills and clearcutting have all lead to increased government regulations.
There is now a trend towards sustainability in the pulp and paper industry as it moves to reduce clear cutting, water use, greenhouse gas emissions, fossil fuel consumption and clean up its impacts on local water supplies and air pollution. According to a Canadian citizen's organization, "People need paper products and we need sustainable, environmentally safe production. Environmental product declarations or product scorecards are available to collect and evaluate the environmental and social performance of paper products, such as the Paper Calculator,  Environmental Paper Assessment Tool EPAT ,  or Paper Profile.
Both the U. Pulp and paper generates the third largest amount of industrial air, water, and land emissions in Canada and the sixth largest in the United States. Worldwide, the pulp and paper industry is the fifth largest consumer of energy, accounting for four percent of all the world's energy use. The pulp and paper industry uses more water to produce a ton of product than any other industry.
The de-inking process during paper recycling is also a source of emissions due to chemicals released in the effluent. Plantation forests , from where the majority of wood for pulping is obtained, is generally a monoculture and this raises concerns over the ecological effects of the practice.
Much of the wood harvested in North America goes into lumber and other non-paper products. In the U. Deforestation is often seen as a problem in developing countries but also occurs in the developed world.
Woodchipping to produce paper pulp is a contentious environmental issue in Australia. Over 6. The National Emissions Inventory in the U. Several PBTs are emitted by the pulp and paper industry at measurable levels, including lead, hexachlorobenzene HCB , dioxins, furans and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.
There are other important releases to air by the pulp and paper industry. Fine particulate matter PM 2. The pulp and paper industry in the U. NOx and SOx are major contributors of acid rain and CO 2 is a greenhouse gas responsible for climate change. In , the pulp and paper industry in North America was responsible for about 0.
Wastewater discharges for a pulp and paper mill contains solids, nutrients and dissolved organic matter such as lignin. It also contains alcohols , and chelating agents and inorganic materials like chlorates and transition metal compounds. Nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus can cause or exacerbate eutrophication of fresh water bodies such as lakes and rivers. Organic matter dissolved in fresh water, measured by biological oxygen demand BOD , changes ecological characteristics.
Wastewater may also be polluted with organochlorine compounds. Some of these are naturally occurring in the wood, but chlorine bleaching of the pulp produces far larger amounts. The pulp and paper industry is also associated with important emissions of heavy metals. In Canada, for example, this industry is the third source of lead Pb emissions to water  In the U. Levels of discharge have not changed significantly since that time. Recycling the effluent see black liquor and burning it, using bioremediation ponds and employing less damaging agents in the pulping and bleaching processes can help reduce water pollution.
Discharges can also discolour the water leading to reduced aesthetics. This has happened with the Tarawera River in New Zealand which subsequently became known as the "black drain".
Paper recycling mitigates this impact, but not the environmental and economic impact of the energy consumed by manufacturing, transporting and burying and or reprocessing paper products. Chlorine and compounds of chlorine are used in the bleaching of wood pulp , especially chemical pulps produced by the kraft process or sulfite process. In the past, plants using elemental chlorine produced significant quantities of dioxins ,  persistent and very toxic organic pollutants.
As a result, dioxin production was also significantly reduced. Environmental Protection Agency EPA data concluded that "Studies of effluents from mills that use oxygen delignification and extended delignification to produce ECF elemental chlorine free and TCF pulps suggest that the environmental effects of these processes are low and similar.
TCF bleaching, by removing chlorine from the process, reduces chlorinated organic compounds to background levels in pulp mill effluent. On the one hand, paper and chemical industry-funded studies have generally found that there is no environmental difference between ECF and TCF effluents. Sulfur -based compounds are used in both the kraft process and the sulfite process for making wood pulp.
Sulfur is generally recovered, with the exception of ammonia-based sulfite processes, but some is released as sulfur dioxide during combustion of black liquor , a byproduct of the kraft process, or "red liquor" from the sulfite process. Sulfur dioxide is of particular concern because it is water-soluble and is a major cause of acid rain.
A modern kraft pulp mill is more than self-sufficient in its electrical generation and normally will provide a net flow of energy to the local electrical grid.
Air emissions of hydrogen sulfide , methyl mercaptan , dimethyl sulfide , dimethyl disulfide , and other volatile sulfur compounds are the cause of the odor characteristic of pulp mills utilizing the kraft process. Other chemicals that are released into the air and water from most paper mills include the following: . Bleaching mechanical pulp is not a major cause for environmental concern since most of the organic material is retained in the pulp, and the chemicals used hydrogen peroxide and sodium dithionite produce benign byproducts water and, eventually, sodium sulfate , respectively.
However, the bleaching of chemical pulps has the potential to cause significant environmental damage, primarily through the release of organic materials into waterways. Pulp mills are almost always located near large bodies of water because they require substantial quantities of water for their processes.
An increased public awareness of environmental issues from the s and s, as evidenced by the formation of organizations like Greenpeace , influenced the pulping industry and governments to address the release of these materials into the environment.
Conventional bleaching using elemental chlorine produces and releases into the environment large amounts of chlorinated organic compounds , including chlorinated dioxins.
Dioxins are highly toxic, and health effects on humans include reproductive, developmental, immune and hormonal problems. They are known to be carcinogenic. Greenhouse gas emissions from the pulp and paper industry are generated from the combustion of fossil fuels required for raw material production and transportation, wastewater treatment facilities, purchased power, paper transportation, printed product transportation, disposal and recycling.
Disposing of paper in landfill sites, and subsequent breakdown and production of methane a potent greenhouse gas also adds to the carbon footprint of paper products. This is another reason why paper recycling is beneficial for the environment. At pulp and paper mills in the U. Clay or calcium carbonate are used as fillers for some papers. Kaolin is the most commonly used clay for coated papers.
Trees particularly suited for pulp production have been introduced in various regions worldwide. Some of those have now come to be recognized as aggressive invasive species.
In Malaysia , the Acacia auriculaeformis and Acacia mangium are counted as invasive trees. Some of the environmental impacts of the pulp and paper industry have been addressed and there is movement towards sustainable practices. Using wood from plantation forests addresses concerns about loss of old growth forests. Cutting down trees to make forest products such as pulp and paper creates temporary or long-term environmental disturbances in forest habitats depending on how carefully the harvest is carried out.
There might be impacts on plant and animal biodiversity, soil fertility and water quality. However, sustainable forest management practices are a way of using and caring for forests so as to maintain their environmental, social and economic values and benefits over time. Forest Service. In Canada, sustainable forest management is supported by a forest management planning process; a science-based approach to decision-making, assessment and planning as well as by regulations and policies.
Promoting and supporting forest certification and the ability to trace the origin of wood fiber helps ensure sustainable forest management and legal logging. The forest certification systems that are currently the most used are:.
The move to non-elemental chlorine for the bleaching process reduced the emission of the carcinogenic organochlorines. Peracetic acid , ozone  and hydrogen peroxide and oxygen are used in bleaching sequences in the pulp industry to produce totally chlorine free TCF paper. There are three categories of paper that can be used as feedstocks for making recycled paper: mill broke, pre-consumer waste, and post-consumer waste.
Pre-consumer waste is material that was discarded before it was ready for consumer use. Post-consumer waste is material discarded after consumer use such as old magazines, old telephone directories, and residential mixed paper. One concern about recycling wood pulp paper is that the fibers are degraded with each and after being recycled four or five times the fibers become too short and weak to be useful in making paper.
Recycling paper decreases the demand for virgin pulp and thus reduces the overall amount of air and water pollution associated with paper manufacture. Recycled pulp can be bleached with the same chemicals used to bleach virgin pulp, but hydrogen peroxide and sodium hydrosulfite are the most common bleaching agents.
Recycled pulp, or paper made from it, is known as PCF process chlorine free if no chlorine-containing compounds were used in the recycling process.
Recycling as an alternative to the use of landfills and recycled paper is one of the less complicated procedures in the recycling industry. Virgin paper contains no recycled content and is made directly from the pulp of trees or cotton. Materials recovered after the initial paper manufacturing process are considered recycled paper. The collection and recycling industries have fixated on the scraps of paper that is thrown away by customers daily in order to increase the amount of recycled paper.
This type of mill detaches the ink from the paper fibers, along with any other excess materials which are also removed from the remaining paper. In the deinking mill, after all of the unwanted coatings of paper are stripped, the refurbished paper is sent to the paper machine.
The old scraps are now constructed into new paper at the paper machine. Many papers mills have recycled business papers by transforming the old business papers into beneficial letters and envelopes.
The production process for recycled paper is more costly than the well-developed paper mills that create paper with the use of trees. This process in making recycled paper is also much more time-consuming. However, recycled paper has a multitude of benefits from an environmental perspective. Pulp and paper is a heavily regulated industry in North America.
EPA first issued national wastewater standards, known as effluent guidelines , for pulp and paper mills in , pursuant to the Clean Water Act. The agency established numeric limitations for several conventional pollutants. See United States regulation of point source water pollution.
EPA's "Cluster Rule" CR addressed additional toxic wastewater pollutants, and regulated hazardous air pollutant emissions as well.
Environmental Policy and Politics
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: Vig and M. Vig , M. Kraft Published Political Science.
From American and Comparative Environmental Policy. Edited by Michael E. Kraft and Sheldon Kamieniecki. It is well known that American businesses make an effort to influence environmental policy by attempting to set the political agenda and to influence regulations and legislation. This book examines what is not so well known: the extent to which business succeeds in its policy interventions. In Business and Environmental Policy , a team of distinguished scholars systematically analyzes corporate influence at all stages of the policy process, focusing on the factors that determine the success or failure of business lobbying in Congress, state legislatures, local governments, federal and state agencies, and the courts. These experts consider whether business influence is effectively counterbalanced by the efforts of environmental groups, public opinion, and other forces.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Agarwal, A. AMBIO 19 2 Aitken, S.
Environmental Policy: New Directions for the Twenty-First Century
Covering global threats such as climate change, population growth, and loss of biodiversity, as well as national, state, and local problems of environmental pollution, energy use, and natural resource use and conservation, this exciting and unique text covers U. Offering a succinct overview and assessment of U. Goodreads helps you keep track of books you want to read. Want to Read saving…. Want to Read Currently Reading Read.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. The influence of American environmental NGOs has evolved significantly over the past three decades as the larger scientific, economic, institutional, and political contexts of environmental policy have changed. This paper places the role of environmental NGOs within these contexts.
The system can't perform the operation now.
Забудьте о ней! - Он отключил телефон и запихнул за ремень. Больше ему никто не помешает. В двенадцати тысячах миль от этого места Токуген Нуматака в полной растерянности застыл у окна своего кабинета. Сигара умами безжизненно свисала изо рта. Сделка всей его жизни только что распалась - за каких-то несколько минут.
С гулко стучащим сердцем Беккер надавил на газ и исчез в темноте. ГЛАВА 84 Джабба вздохнул с облегчением, припаяв последний контакт. Выключив паяльник, он отложил в сторону фонарик и некоторое время отдыхал, лежа под большим стационарным компьютером. Затекшая шея причиняла ему сильную боль. Такая работа была непростой, особенно для человека его комплекции.
Поэтому от Хейла не потребовалось вообще никаких усилий: личные коды соответствовали первым пяти ударам по клавиатуре. Какая ирония, думал он, глядя в монитор Сьюзан.
Сьюзан вспомнила о единственном остающемся выходе - личном лифте Стратмора. Но она понимала, что надежды нет: электроника вряд ли уцелела после катастрофы. Двигаясь в дыму, она вдруг вспомнила слова Хейла: У этого лифта автономное электропитание, идущее из главного здания. Я видел схему.
Вобрав голову в плечи, он ударил убийцу всем телом, отшвырнув его на раковину. Со звоном разбилось и покрылось трещинами зеркало. Пистолет упал на пол.
На этой машине нет автоматического определителя номера, сэр. Я позвоню в телефонную компанию. Я уверена, что они смогут сказать.