difference between normal and abnormal behavior pdf

Difference Between Normal And Abnormal Behavior Pdf

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Abnormal psychology is the branch of psychology that studies unusual patterns of behavior , emotion and thought , which may or may not be understood as precipitating a mental disorder. Although many behaviors could be considered as abnormal , this branch of psychology typically deals with behavior in a clinical context. The field of abnormal psychology identifies multiple causes for different conditions, employing diverse theories from the general field of psychology and elsewhere, and much still hinges on what exactly is meant by "abnormal".

Jump to navigation. Abnormal psychology, frequently called psychopathology, is the study of people suffering from mental, emotional and often physical pain. Although people with psychopathological problems can have unusual experiences, most of the time these experiences are same in nature to other people's experiences but taken to an extreme degree e. Some behaviours that seem abnormal to us are normal in other cultures or situations. When we determine whether something is normal, we have to look at the context or circumstances in which the behavior occurs.

Abnormal Psychology

By Saul McLeod , updated August 05, Abnormal psychology is a division of psychology that studies people who are "abnormal" or "atypical" compared to the members of a given society. The definition of the word abnormal is simple enough but applying this to psychology poses a complex problem: what is normal? Whose norm? For what age? For what culture? The concept of abnormality is imprecise and difficult to define.

Examples of abnormality can take many different forms and involve different features, so that, what at first sight seem quite reasonable definitions, turns out to be quite problematic.

Under this definition of abnormality, a person's trait, thinking or behavior is classified as abnormal if it is rare or statistically unusual. With this definition it is necessary to be clear about how rare a trait or behavior needs to be before we class it as abnormal. For instance, one may say that an individual who has an IQ below or above the average level of IQ in society is abnormal. The statistical approach helps to address what is meant by normal in a statistical context.

It helps us make cut — off points in terms of diagnosis. However, this definition fails to distinguish between desirable and undesirable behavior. For example, obesity is statistically normal but not associated with healthy or desirable. Conversely, high IQ is statistically abnormal, but may well be regarded as highly desirable.

Many rare behaviors or characteristics e. Some characteristics are regarded as abnormal even though they are quite frequent. The decision of where to start the "abnormal" classification is arbitrary. Who decides what is statistically rare and how do they decide? For example, if an IQ of 70 is the cut-off point, how can we justify saying someone with 69 is abnormal, and someone with 70 normal? This definition also implies that the presence of abnormal behavior in people should be rare or statistically unusual, which is not the case.

Instead, any specific abnormal behavior may be unusual, but it is not unusual for people to exhibit some form of prolonged abnormal behavior at some point in their lives, and mental disorders such as depression are actually very statistically common. Violation of social norms is a definition of abnormality where a person's thinking or behavior is classified as abnormal if it violates the unwritten rules about what is expected or acceptable behavior in a particular social group.

Their behavior may be incomprehensible to others or make others feel threatened or uncomfortable. With this definition, it is necessary to consider the degree to which a norm is violated, the importance of that norm and the value attached by the social group to different sorts of violation e.

There are a number of influences on social norms that need to be taken into account when considering the social norms definition:. For example, it is common in Southern Europe to stand much closer to strangers than in the UK. Voice pitch and volume, touching, direction of gaze and acceptable subjects for discussion have all been found to vary between cultures. At any one time, a type of behavior might be considered normal whereas another time the same behavior could be abnormal, depending on both context and situation.

For example, wearing a chicken suit in the street for a charity event would seem normal, but wearing a chicken suit for everyday activities such as shopping or going to church, it would be socially abnormal.

Time must also be taken into account, as what is considered abnormal at one time in one culture may be normal another time, even in the same culture.

For example, one hundred years ago, a pregnancy outside of marriage was considered a sign of mental illness and some women were institutionalized, whereas now this is not the case. Different people can behave in the same way and for some will be normal and others abnormal, depending on age and gender and sometimes other factors.

For example, a man wearing a dress and high heels may be considered socially abnormal as society would not expect it, whereas this is expected of women. The most obvious problem with defining abnormality using social norms is that there is no universal agreement over social norms.

Social norms are culturally specific - they can differ significantly from one generation to the next and between different ethnic, regional and socio-economic groups. In some societies, such as the Zulu for example, hallucinations and screaming in the street are regarded as normal behavior. Social norms also exist within a time frame, and therefore change over time. Behavior that was once seen as abnormal may, given time, become acceptable and vice versa. For example, drink driving was once considered acceptable but is now seen as socially unacceptable whereas homosexuality has gone the other way.

Until homosexuality was considered a psychological disorder by the World Health Organization WHO but today is considered acceptable. Social norms can also depend on the situation or context we find ourselves in.

Is it normal to eat parts of a dead body? In a rugby team who survived a plane crash in the snow-capped Andes of South America found themselves without food and in sub-freezing temperatures for 72 days. In order to survive, they ate the bodies of those who had died in the crash.

Failure to function adequately is a definition of abnormality where a person is considered abnormal if they are unable to cope with the demands of everyday life, or experience personal distress.

They may be unable to perform the behaviors necessary for day-to-day living e. One limitation of this definition is that apparently abnormal behavior may actually be helpful, function and adaptive for the individual.

For example, a person who has the obsessive-compulsive disorder of hand-washing may find that the behavior makes him cheerful, happy and better able to cope with his day. Abnormality can be defined as a deviation from ideal mental health. This requires us to decide on the characteristics we consider necessary for mental health. Jahoda defined six criteria by which mental health could be measured:.

According to this approach, the more of these criteria are satisfied, the healthier the individual is. It is practically impossible for any individual to achieve all of the ideal characteristics all of the time. The absence of this criterion of ideal mental health hardly indicates he is suffering from a mental disorder.

Most definitions of psychological abnormality are devised by white, middle class men. It has been suggested that this may lead to disproportionate numbers of people from certain groups being diagnosed as "abnormal. For example, in the UK, depression is more commonly identified in women, and black people are more likely than their white counterparts to be diagnosed with schizophrenia.

Similarly, working class people are more likely to be diagnosed with a mental illness than those from non manual backgrounds. Behaviorists believe that our actions are determined largely by the experiences we have in life, rather than by underlying pathology of unconscious forces. Abnormality is therefore seen as the development of behavior patterns that are considered maladaptive i.

The emphasis of the behavioral approach is on the environment and how abnormal behavior is acquired, through classical conditioning , operant conditioning and social learning. Classical conditioning has been said to account for the development of phobias. The feared object e.

The conditioned stimulus subsequently evokes a powerful fear response characterized by avoidance of the feared object and the emotion of fear whenever the object is encountered. Learning environments can reinforce re: operant conditioning problematic behaviors. Our society can also provide deviant maladaptive models that children identify with and imitate re: social learning theory.

The model deals with how information is processed in the brain and the impact of this on behavior. The individual is an active processor of information. How a person, perceives, anticipates and evaluates events rather than the events themselves, which will have an impact on behavior. This is generally believed to be an automatic process, in other words, we do not really think about it. In people with psychological problems, these thought processes tend to be negative and the cognitions i.

These cognitions cause distortions in the way we see things; Ellis suggested it is through irrational thinking , while Beck proposed the cognitive triad. The medical model of psychopathology believes that disorders have an organic or physical cause.

The focus of this approach is on genetics, neurotransmitters, neurophysiology, neuroanatomy, biochemistry etc. For example, in terms of biochemistry — the dopamine hypothesis argues that elevated levels of dopamine are related to symptoms of schizophrenia. The approach argues that mental disorders are related to the physical structure and functioning of the brain.

For example, differences in brain structure abnormalities in the frontal and pre-frontal cortex, enlarged ventricles have been identified in people with schizophrenia.

Freud also believed that early childhood experiences and unconscious motivation were responsible for disorders. Since the s it has been argued by anti-psychiatrists that the entire notion of abnormality or mental disorder is merely a social construction used by society.

Notable anti-psychiatrists were Michel Foucault, R. Laing, Thomas Szasz and Franco Basaglia. Some observations made are;. Toggle navigation. Home Abnormal Psychology Abnormal Psychology Abnormal Psychology By Saul McLeod , updated August 05, Abnormal psychology is a division of psychology that studies people who are "abnormal" or "atypical" compared to the members of a given society.

Definitions of Abnormality Definitions of Abnormality. Explanations of Abnormality Explanations of Abnormality. Download this article as a PDF. Different cultures and subcultures are going to have different social norms.

Difference Between Normality and Abnormality Psychology

To understand the issue more clearly, let us first consider the concept of normality and abnormality in the area of physical health and disease. Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF. Skip to main content. This service is more advanced with JavaScript available. Advertisement Hide.

Increasing evidence indicates that normal and abnormal personality can be treated within a single structural framework. However, identification of a single integrated structure of normal and abnormal personality has remained elusive. Here, a constructive replication approach was used to delineate an integrative hierarchical account of the structure of normal and abnormal personality. This hierarchical structure, which integrates many Big Trait models proposed in the literature, replicated across a meta-analysis as well as an empirical study, and across samples of participants as well as measures. The proposed structure resembles previously suggested accounts of personality hierarchy and provides insight into the nature of personality hierarchy more generally. Potential directions for future research on personality and psychopathology are discussed. Despite consensus about the possibility of describing normal and abnormal personality within a single structural framework, however, there is less consensus about what this structural framework might be.

difference between normal and abnormal behaviour pdf

Abnormality is the significant deviation from commonly accepted patterns of behavior, emotion or thought, while normality is the absence of illness and the presence of state of well being otherwise called normalcy. It can be difficult to draw the line between normal and abnormal behaviors, especially in leadership. Abnormality is to normality what opposition is to opportunity. An airplane pilot knows that an aircraft flies high as a result of the opposing wind that collides against it. And so is abnormality to normalcy.

Difference Between Normality and Abnormality Psychology

Delineating the Structure of Normal and Abnormal Personality: An Integrative Hierarchical Approach

February 11, Staff Writers. Find the information you need to find, get into, pay for, and thrive in the best college for you. For both undergraduate and graduate students majoring in psychology, counseling or a similar related field, it is inevitable that you will be required to take at least one course in abnormal psychology. Often considered one of the most fascinating branches of the multi-dimensional field, abnormal psychology is a study that deals with better understanding the wide range of psychological disorders that impact human behavior and cause psychopathology. Advertisement BestCounselingDegrees.

I am very happy to be here and I wish to express my gratitude to Professor, This article is focused on the jurisdictional battle between psychiatrists and psychologists over psychological expertise in legal contexts that took place during the first decades of the 20th century. It is conformity to societal standards as well as thinking and behaving similarly to the majority, and as such is generally seen as good in this context. On the other hand, abnormality is deviance or violation of those norms.

By Saul McLeod , updated August 05, Abnormal psychology is a division of psychology that studies people who are "abnormal" or "atypical" compared to the members of a given society. The definition of the word abnormal is simple enough but applying this to psychology poses a complex problem: what is normal? Whose norm? For what age? For what culture? The concept of abnormality is imprecise and difficult to define.


The concept of abnormality is defined as the simple exaggeration or perverted development of the normal psychological behaviour. In other words, it deals with the.


Definitions of Abnormality

Joseph P. Garner, Ph. Normal behavior plays a key role in facilitating homeostasis, especially by allowing the animal to control and modify its environment. Captive environments may interfere with these behavioral responses, and the resulting stress may alter many physiological parameters. Abnormal behaviors indicate that an animal is unable to adjust behaviorally to the captive environment and, hence, may be expressing abnormal physiology.

 - Вы когда-нибудь видели что-либо более ужасное, чем это место? - Он обвел глазами палату.  - Не больница, а помойка. И они еще решили оставить меня здесь на ночь.

Джабба заглянул в распечатку. - Вот что я хочу сказать. Червь Танкадо не нацелен на наш банк данных.

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4 Comments

  1. Lyn1066

    symptoms of this disorder in a guiding way. 3. 1. Excessive attention to details. People with TPOC plan absolutely.

    27.03.2021 at 03:14 Reply
  2. Marie D.

    Normality and abnormality psychology are terms used to describe specific behaviors, sets of or patterns of behaviors, including thoughts and feelings, as well as traits which are either biological or psychological.

    27.03.2021 at 16:02 Reply
  3. Gimena P.

    Developmental Psychology is devoted to studying the origins and course of individual maladaptive in the context of normal growth process.

    01.04.2021 at 19:25 Reply
  4. RenГ©e E.

    Nec 2017 pdf free download practical speech activities in form of recognition and transcription in english languagen pdf

    04.04.2021 at 20:41 Reply

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