File Name: vitamins water soluble and fat soluble .zip
- Fat-Soluble vs. Water-Soluble Vitamins
- The Fat-Soluble Vitamins
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If you're like most kids, you've probably heard at least one parent say, "Don't forget to take your vitamin! Vitamins and minerals are substances that are found in foods we eat. Your body needs them to work properly, so you grow and develop just like you should.
We include products we think are useful for our readers. If you buy through links on this page, we may earn a small commission. Fat-soluble vitamins are vitamins A, D, E, and K.
Fat-Soluble vs. Water-Soluble Vitamins
This study is aimed at determining the content of water soluble vitamins in amateur sportsmen before and after the use of reduction diet. Twenty adult male amateur sportsmen aged between 20 and 43 qualified for this study.
The participants adhered to individually adjusted reduction diets for 3 months. Diet supplements were excluded from the diet during that time. Vitamins were analyzed before and after the reduction diet using HPLC.
Appropriate level of riboflavin can be obtained by the consumption of proper amount of diary in the diet. Supplementation with PP is advised and, in case of improper diet, the supplementation of B1, B7 and B12 may also be considered.
In endurance sports, such as long-distance running, in addition to the reduction of fatty tissue it is also important to reduce total body mass [ 1 ]. To achieve this goal, sportsmen often undertake risky actions, which, if not properly controlled, can lead to nutritional deficiencies and serious health issues. In this study we are interested in water soluble vitamins, especially riboflavin and folic acid.
These coenzymes are involved in the transfer of electrons in energy and amino-acids metabolism and in the production of steroid hormones. This vitamin is crucial, especially for physically active people, due to its function in transferring the electrons to respiratory chain electron transfer chain to form ATP and in conversion of vitamin B 6 to its active form [ 2 ]. They are: 1. However, in the study by Szczuko et al. Major sources of riboflavin in food are: dairy products, eggs, wholegrain products, green leafy vegetables, giblets, lentils and almonds, but dairy products are the richest in vitamin B 2.
Some researchers claim that the inability to store the vitamin in large quantities in requires constant supplementation of riboflavin through diet [ 5 ].
Reduction diet used by examined sportsmen contained more dairy products at least 3 portions a day , wholegrain products and leafy vegetables, which mainly contributed to higher amount of riboflavin in the diet — on average 2. Nutritional content in reduction diets in comparison with current standards [ 6 ]. Folic acid is involved in the synthesis of purine and pyrimidine bases methionine, histidine, choline , plays a crucial role in synthesis and methylation of DNA and in maintaining the integrity, stability and repair of deoxynucleic acid.
It is also involved in amino acid metabolism and is an important compound in the synthesis of new cells, including red blood cells, and in repair of damaged cells and tissues. Because increased physical activity contributes to muscle tissue damage, the demand on folates may be higher. Folic acid together with vitamin B 12 and vitamin B 6 are closely interrelated in methionine metabolism an essential amino acid. If any of these crucial vitamins is unavailable, the level of homocysteine, as an indirect metabolite in methionine metabolism, is growing.
Elevated level of homocysteine potentiates cardio-vascular problems [ 2 , 7 ]. Increase in homocysteine concentration in blood plasma is directly connected to damage and disfunction of endothelial cells, leads to decreased concentration of nitric oxide NO and affects reduced elasticity of arteries.
Most common causes of deficiencies of folic acid in a diet are absorption disorders, culinary losses and improper dietary choices [ 2 , 8 ].
The latest reports also suggest distorted methylation and effect of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase MTHFR polymorphisms in improper absorption of folic acid and diet supplements. In their study Cabo et al.
Main source of folic acid in the diet are green vegetables such as spinach, lettuce, kale, broccoli, peas, beans, and also citrus fruits, yeast, whole grains and parsley roots. Folate belongs to vitamins especially susceptible to culinary processes leading to substantial losses during thermal treatment.
Due to the fact that only half of the folic acid available in food is absorbed by our body, it becomes more and more attractive to enrich food products with folates, e. In our study, we also focused on proper supply of other vitamins and nutrients. The following vitamins were also analyzed in blood plasma: - thiamine, which is involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins, especially branched-chain amino acids BCAA , - pantothenic acid that are essential in the Krebs cycle, — pyridoxin, mainly linked to amino acids metabolism and synthesis of neurotransmitters, - biotin, playing an important role in proper function of mitochondria, - cobalamin, essential in metabolism of methionine and formation of blood cells, - ascorbic acid, being a cofactor in collagen synthesis and playing a role in antioxidative defense of the organism.
The aim of this study was to compare the supply status of water soluble vitamins in amateur sportsmen before and after the reduction diet. It was assumed that using a properly balanced low-energy diet would contribute to increase in the concentration of all vitamins in blood plasma without additional supplementation in comparison to previous period comprising of regular diet.
Undoubtedly, professional sportsmen should be supplemented, but we were interested to know whether an amateur sportsman requires such intervention if the diet is properly composed. The study involved 20 male amateur sportsmen at the age between 20 and 42 average age The assumed physical activity index was at the level of 1.
The study participants represented the following sport disciplines: canoeing, rowing and swimming. The measurements of body composition and basal metabolic rate were performed using bioimpedance method on the device BIA Akern, Italy. The lack of fulfilling these criteria disqualified 8 people from the test group. The research related to human use has been complied with all the relevant national regulations, institutional policies and in accordance the tenets of the Helsinki Declaration, and has been approved by Pomeranian Medical University Ethics Committee.
MO, USA. To isolate the vitamins, amber-coloured Eppendorf tubes were used. The room for vitamins isolation was darkened to prevent photooxidation of vitamins. All the reagents were mixed thoroughly for 2 minutes and then centrifuged for 15 minutes at rpm. Supernatant was collected in new tubes to evaporate acetonitrile.
Water phase was transported onto solid-phase extraction SPE columns containing silica C cartridge Thermo Scientific — activated beforehand with 1ml of methanol and 1ml of ultra-pure water.
The flow rate of the buffers was 0. Particular vitamins in analyzed samples were identified based on retention time of standard peaks. Vitamins pattern shown in the chromatogram Figure 1. For this study, two six-day reduction diets were prepared. They were individually assigned to the participants of the study depending on the type of physical activity.
The caloricity of the diets was determined based on the needs to and kcal. The calories in the diets was dependent on individual anthropometric measurements. The content of nutrients in the reduction diets is presented below in Table 2. The analysis of obtained results was performed using Statistica Mean values and standard deviation were calculated. It was observed that the concentrations of niacin vitamin PP and riboflavin vitamin B 2 were different before and after the reduction diet and this difference is statistically significant.
The content of riboflavin, however, was significantly increased by 0. The changes in the concentration of other vitamins in blood plasma of the participants of the study were determined as statistically insignificant Table 3. However, insignificant increase in folic acid and pyridoxine and insignificant decrease in thiamine and biotin were also noted. The supply of daily demand of required vitamins in case of physically active people requires a rational approach. Some of the vitamins play the role of biocatalysts for biochemical reactions in an organism.
One of the most important roles of vitamins, especially antioxidative ones, is their protective function against the harmful effects of free radicals and reactive oxygen species, which damage cells, tissues, proteins, fats or nucleic acids, that leads to many diseases including those of digestive system, cardiovascular system, neurological disorders or tumors [ 8 ].
Such situation requires corrective measures to rationalize the diet by selecting appropriate products. This, however, might not be always the most successful way especially in the case of reduction diet with lowered caloricity.
It seems that the best and fastest strategy to eliminate the deficiencies in vitamins and mineral compounds in sportsmen is to introduce enriched products and supplements to their diet [ 14 ].
Referring to the demand on vitamins in sportsmen one should consider mainly the type, intensity and duration of physical activity.
The demand on energy in such people is usually between and kcal per day, which is a challenge due to increased demands on nutrients, including vitamins and minerals [ 15 ]. For professional sportsmen, the type of diet and obtained results are interconnected. Thus, it is not sufficient to adjust the energy supply only, but it is also crucial to supply the demands on vitamins and mineral by diversification of food products.
A diet supplying higher amount of energy, protein, B group vitamins, antioxidative vitamins, mineral salts being lost at higher amounts with water , and electrolytes increases health potential in a sportsman, favors optimal results of physical efforts and contributes to increased efficiency [ 16 ].
Malnutrition and dehydration, which are common metabolic consequence of caloric restrictions and are also connected with more frequent occurrence of sports injuries and contusions [ 17 ]. Analyzing the supply of riboflavin, we would like to refer to the study of Hustad et al. The study lasted for 12 weeks, in two examined groups a diet containing 1. One of the group was additionally given a supplementation of 1.
Additional supplementation did not contribute to increased activity of glutathione reductase EGRAC , which signifies that there were no riboflavin deficiencies with average content of this vitamin in the diet at the level of 1. However, the diet containing in total 3mg of riboflavin per day increased the concentration of vitamin B 2 in blood plasma [ 18 ]. In another study by Szczuko et al. The average riboflavin consumption in female group, where biochemical deficiencies in vitamin B 2 were observed, amounted to 1.
In groups where biochemical deficiencies of vitamin B 2 were not observed, the average consumption of riboflavin was 1. Analysis of the two above mentioned studies suggests that riboflavin consumption should be higher that current RDA. In the study by Malary et al. Higher riboflavin consumption was determined in all the groups and it amounted to 1. On the other hand, in the study by Frank et al. Roghead and McCormick reported in their study that the doses of riboflavin of 1.
It indicates that for an average healthy person the daily demand is lower than 1. The fact that riboflavin plays a role in many biochemical and energetic processes in a human body makes it especially vital for sportsmen.
An attention should be put on the significance of riboflavin in glutathione oxidation. The physiological level of glutathione and appropriate activity of glutathione peroxidase GSH-Px are responsible for antioxidative defense in erythrocytes. Reduced levels of glutathione and GSH-Px are linked to increased inflammation processes connected with oxidative modification in lipids and proteins of the membrane, leading in consequence to destabilization and decreased survival among erythrocytes [ 22 ].
An enzyme- glutathione reductase, related to glutathione, is present in cytosol and mitochondria. The enzyme is a flavoprotein, whose role is to keep a proper concentration of GSH glutathione, reduced form in the cells. This in turn is dependent on the activity of glutathione reductase and the availability of NADPH, which is connected to the amount of riboflavin present in the tissues [ 22 ].
Based on this information it can be indicated that vitamin B 2 indirectly contributes to the prevention of blood cells hemolysis and thus to efficient transport of the oxygen by erythrocytes. It is very important because the following factors facilitate the adaptation of respiratory system to higher physical activity: increased lung diffusing capacity, higher oxygen transport to tissues and much increased respiratory minute volume.
Our studies show that 3 portions of dairy in the diet are sufficient to cover the demand on riboflavin in amateur sportsman. An additional advantage of dairy products is the content of calcium, which favorable affects pH balance and alkalinisation of the organism.
The Fat-Soluble Vitamins
Vitamin , any of several organic substances that are necessary in small quantities for normal health and growth in higher forms of animal life. Vitamins are distinct in several ways from other biologically important compounds such as protein s, carbohydrate s, and lipid s. Although these latter substances also are indispensable for proper bodily functions, almost all of them can be synthesized by animals in adequate quantities. Vitamins, on the other hand, generally cannot be synthesized in amounts sufficient to meet bodily needs and therefore must be obtained from the diet or from some synthetic source. For this reason, vitamins are called essential nutrients.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. The water-soluble vitamins include ascorbic acid vitamin C , thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B 6 pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine , folacin, vitamin B 12 , biotin, and pantothenic acid. Vitamin C is active in the body either as L-ascorbic acid or as dehydroascorbic acid. Its best-known function is as a cofactor for the enzyme required to hydroxylate prolyl and lysyl residues for the synthesis of connective tissue proteins.
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We take vitamins and supplements to bolster those we get from the foods we eat and the sunlight we are exposed to. They are absorbed into the body in different ways and excreted from the body at different rates. We can broadly classify them as being either water-soluble or fat-soluble.
The tables below list the vitamins , what they do in the body their functions , and their sources in food. Water-soluble vitamins travel freely through the body, and excess amounts usually are excreted by the kidneys. The body needs water-soluble vitamins in frequent, small doses. These vitamins are not as likely as fat-soluble vitamins to reach toxic levels.
Чатрукьян слышал гулкие удары своего сердца. ТРАНСТЕКСТ заклинило на восемнадцать часовМысль о компьютерном вирусе, проникшем в ТРАНСТЕКСТ и теперь свободно разгуливающем по подвалам АНБ, была непереносима. - Я обязан об этом доложить, - сказал он вслух. В подобной ситуации надо известить только одного человека - старшего администратора систем безопасности АНБ, одышливого, весящего четыреста фунтов компьютерного гуру, придумавшего систему фильтров Сквозь строй. В АНБ он получил кличку Джабба и приобрел репутацию полубога.
- Теперь это не имеет значения. У вас есть ТРАНСТЕКСТ. У вас есть возможность мгновенно получать информацию.
Нет проблем. А как же проваливай и умри. ГЛАВА 36 Ручное отключение. Сьюзан отказывалась что-либо понимать. Она была абсолютно уверена, что не вводила такой команды - во всяком случае, намеренно.
Коммандер Стратмор погиб. - Справедливость восторжествовала, как в дешевой пьесе.
Этот тарантас когда-нибудь остановится. - Еще пять миль. - Куда мы едем. Парень расплылся в широкой улыбке.
Тогда всему придет конец. Директор нахмурился и повернулся к экрану. - Мистер Беккер, я был не прав. Читайте медленно и очень внимательно. Беккер кивнул и поднес кольцо ближе к глазам.
О Боже! - Он внезапно понял, что искалеченный гений все это время давал им ответ. - Три - это простое число! - сказала Соши. - Три - это простое число. Фонтейн пребывал в изумлении. - Неужели так .
Отлично. Он обедает там сегодня с одной из наших сопровождающих. - Ролдан понимал, что сейчас они скорее всего лежат в постели, но ему не хотелось оскорблять чувства звонившего.
Сьюзан стала быстро закрывать файлы электронной почты Хейла, уничтожая следы своего посещения. Хейл ничего не должен заподозрить -. Ключ к Цифровой крепости, внезапно осенило ее, прячется где-то в глубинах этого компьютера. Когда Сьюзан закрывала последний файл, за стеклом Третьего узла мелькнула тень. Она быстро подняла глаза и увидела возвращающегося Грега Хейла.
Сомнений в том, кого именно обвиняет Чатрукьян, не. Единственный терминал в шифровалке, с которого разрешалось обходить фильтры Сквозь строй, принадлежал Стратмору. Когда коммандер заговорил, в его голосе звучали ледяные нотки: - Мистер Чатрукьян, я не хочу сказать, что вас это не касается, но фильтры обошел. - Очевидно, что Стратмор с трудом сдерживает гнев. - Я уже раньше объяснял вам, что занят диагностикой особого рода.
Линейная мутация, - простонал коммандер.