advantages and disadvantages of questionnaires in educational research pdf

Advantages And Disadvantages Of Questionnaires In Educational Research Pdf

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Use of questionnaire in field research offers the following advantages.

Read this article to learn about the advantages and disadvantages of questionnaire method of data collection. It is an economical way of accumulating information. It is economical both for the sender and for the respondent in time, effort and cost. The cost of conducting the study with the help of questionnaire method is very low.

Module 9 : Introduction to Research

Descriptions of key issues in survey research and questionnaire design are highlighted in the following sections. Modes of data collection approaches are described together with their advantages and disadvantages. Descriptions of commonly used sampling designs are provided and the primary sources of survey error are identified.

Terms relating to the topics discussed here are defined in the Research Glossary. The population may be composed of a group of individuals e. There are many different types of surveys, several ways to administer them, and different methods for selecting the sample of individuals or organizations that will be invited to participate. Some surveys collect information on all members of a population and others collect data on a subset of a population.

A survey may be administered to a sample of individuals or to the entire population at a single point in time cross-sectional survey , or the same survey may be administered to different samples from the population at different time points repeat cross-sectional.

Other surveys may be administered to the same sample of individuals at different time points longitudinal survey. Regardless of the type of survey, there are two key features of survey research: Questionnaires—a predefined series of questions used to collect information from individuals.

Sampling—a technique in which a subgroup of the population is selected to answer the survey questions. Depending on the sampling method, the information collected may or may not be generalized to the entire population of interest.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Survey Research Advantages. The two most common types of survey questions are closed-ended questions and open-ended questions. Closed-Ended Questions. A well designed questionnaire is more than a collection of questions on one or more topics. When designing a questionnaire, researchers must consider a number of factors that can affect participation and the responses given by survey participants.

Some of the things researchers must consider to help ensure high rates of participation and accurate survey responses include: It is important to consider the order in which questions are presented. Sensitive questions, such as questions about income, drug use, or sexual activity, should generally be placed near the end of the survey.

This allows a level of trust or psychological comfort to be established with the respondent before asking questions that might be embarrassing or more personal. Researchers also recommend putting routine questions, such as age, gender, and marital status, at the end of the questionnaire. Questions that are more central to the research topic or question and that may serve to engage the respondent should be asked early.

For example, a survey on children's early development that is administered to parents should ask questions that are specific to their children in the beginning or near the beginning of the survey.

Double-barreled questions, which ask two questions in one, should never be used in a survey. An example of a double-barreled question is, "Please rate how strongly you agree or disagree with the following statement: 'I feel good about my work on the job, and I get along well with others at work.

Researchers should avoid or limit the use of professional jargon or highly specialized terms, especially in surveys of the general population. Question and response option text should use words that are at the appropriate reading level for research participants. The use of complex sentence structures should be avoided. Researchers should avoid using emotionally loaded or biased words and phrases.

The length of a questionnaire is always a consideration. There is a tendency to try and ask too many questions and cover too many topics.

The questionnaire should be kept to a reasonable length and only include questions that are central to the research question s. The length should be appropriate to the mode of administration. For example, in general, online surveys are shorter than surveys administered in-person. Questionnaires and the procedures that will be used to administer them should be pretested or field tested before they are used in a main study.

The goal of the pretest is to identify any problems with how questions are asked, whether they are understood by individuals similar to those who will participate in the main study, and whether response options in close-ended questions are adequate.

For example, a parent questionnaire that will be used in a large study of preschool-age children may be administered first to a small often non-random sample of parents in order to identify any problems with how questions are asked and understood and whether the response options that are offered to parents are adequate.

Based on the findings of the pretest, additions or modifications to questionnaire items and administration procedures are made prior to their use in the main study. When deciding which of these approaches to use, researchers consider: the cost of contacting the study participant and of data collection, the literacy level of participants, response rate requirements, respondent burden and convenience, the complexity of the information that is being sought and the mix of open-ended and close-ended questions.

Some of the main advantages and disadvantages of the different modes of administration are summarized below. Mail Surveys. Please enable JavaScript in your browser. JavasScript is required to use the core functionality of this site including searching, downloading data, and depositing data.

Data Collection Survey Research and Questionnaires Administrative Data Field Research Survey Research and Questionnaires Descriptions of key issues in survey research and questionnaire design are highlighted in the following sections.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Survey Research Advantages Surveys are a cost-effective and efficient means of gathering information about a population. Data can be collected from a large number of respondents. In general, the larger the number of respondents i. Sampling using probability methods to select potential survey respondents makes it possible to estimate the characteristics e. Depending on the population and type of information sought, survey questionnaires can be administered in-person or remotely via telephone, mail, online and mobile devices.

Disadvantages Questions asked in surveys tend to be broad in scope. Surveys often do not allow researchers to develop an in-depth understanding of individual circumstances or the local culture that may be the root cause of respondent behavior. Respondents may be reluctant to share sensitive information about themselves and others.

Respondents may provide socially desirable responses to the questions asked. That is, they may give answers that they believe the researcher wants to hear or answers that shed the best light on them and others. For example, they may over-report positive behaviors and under-report negative behaviors. A growing problem in survey research is the widespread decline in response rates, or percentage of those selected to participate who chose to do so. Questionnaire Design The two most common types of survey questions are closed-ended questions and open-ended questions.

Closed-Ended Questions The respondents are given a list of predetermined responses from which to choose their answer.

The list of responses should include every possible response and the meaning of the responses should not overlap. An example of a close-ended survey question would be, "Please rate how strongly you agree or disagree with the following statement: 'I feel good about my work on the job.

Closed-ended questions are usually preferred in survey research because of the ease of counting the frequency of each response. Open-Ended Questions Survey respondents are asked to answer each question in their own words.

An example would be, "In the last 12 months, what was the total income of all members of your household from all sources before taxes and other deductions? In the previous example, if the question on household income asked respondents to choose from a given set of income ranges instead, it would be considered close-ended.

Responses are usually categorized into a smaller list of responses that can be counted for statistical analysis.

Mixed-mode or multi-mode surveys use two or more data collection modes in order to increase survey response. Participants are given the option of choosing the mode that they prefer, rather than this being dictated by the research team. For example, the Head Start Family and Child Experience Survey offers teachers the option of completing the study's teacher survey online or using a paper questionnaire.

Parents can complete the parent survey online or by phone. Therefore, a sample of the members of the population would be selected to represent the total population. A primary strength of sampling is that estimates of a population's characteristics can be obtained by surveying a small proportion of the population.

For example, it would not be feasible to interview all parents of preschool-age children in the U. Thus, a sample of preschoolers' parents would be selected and interviewed, and the data they provide would be used to estimate the types of child care parents as a whole choose and their reasons for choosing these programs.

There are two broad types of sampling: Nonprobability sampling : The selection of participants from a population is not determined by chance.

Each member of the population does not have a known or given chance of being selected into the sample. Findings from nonprobability nonrandom samples cannot be generalized to the population of interest. Consequently, it is problematic to make inferences about the population.

Common nonprobability sampling techniques include convenience sampling, snowball sampling, quota sampling and purposive sampling. Probability sampling : The selection of participants from the population is determined by chance and with each individual having a known, non-zero probability of selection. It provides accurate descriptions of the population and therefore good generalizability. In survey research, it is the preferred sampling method.

Three forms of probability sampling are described here: Simple Random Sampling This is the most basic form of sampling. Every member of the population has an equal chance of being selected. This sampling process is similar to a lottery: the entire population of interest could be selected for the survey, but only a few are chosen at random. For example, researchers may use random-digit dialing to perform simple random sampling for telephone surveys.

In this procedure, telephone numbers are generated by a computer at random and called to identify individuals to participate in the survey. Stratified Sampling Stratified sampling is used when researchers want to ensure representation across groups, or strata, in the population. The groups must be mutually exclusive and cover the population. Stratified sampling provides greater precision than a simple random sample of the same size. Cluster Sampling Cluster sampling is generally used to control costs and when it is geographically impossible to undertake a simple random sample.

For example, in a household survey with face-to-face interviews, it is difficult and expensive to survey households across the nation using a simple random sample design. Instead, researchers will randomly select geographic areas for example, counties , then randomly select households within these areas. This creates a cluster sample, in which respondents are clustered together geographically. Survey research studies often use a combination of these probability methods to select their samples.

Multistage sampling is a probability sampling technique where sampling is carried out in several stages. It is often used to select samples when a single frame is not available to select members for a study sample.

For example, there is no single list of all children enrolled in public school kindergartens across the U. Therefore, researchers who need a sample of kindergarten children will first select a sample of schools with kindergarten programs from a school frame e.

Lists of all kindergarten classrooms in selected schools are developed and a sample of classrooms selected in each of the sampled schools Stage 2.

A quick guide to survey research

Surveys can be conducted in various ways like telephone interviews, personal interviews, mail surveys, email surveys, internet surveys, computer direct interviews or questionnaires. Each method has its own advantages and disadvantages and much depends on the target audience. We shall discuss here the advantages and disadvantages of using questionnaire research. The questionnaire is a structured technique for collecting primary data in a marketing survey. It is a series of well written or verbal questions for which the respondent provides the answers.

This book is a guide to research methods for practitioner research. Written in friendly and accessible language, it includes numerous practical examples based on the authors' own experiences in the field, to support readers. The authors provide information and guidance on developing research skills such as gathering and analysing information and data, reporting findings and research design. They offer critical perspectives to help users reflect on research approaches and to scrutinise key issues in devising research questions. This book is for undergraduate and postgraduate students, teachers and practitioners in practitioner research development and leadership programmes. The team of authors are all within the School of Education at the University of Glasgow and have significant experience of working with practitioner researchers in education. Questionnaires are one of the most frequently used methods in educational research, and are often used as part of a survey.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Questionnaires

Descriptions of key issues in survey research and questionnaire design are highlighted in the following sections. Modes of data collection approaches are described together with their advantages and disadvantages. Descriptions of commonly used sampling designs are provided and the primary sources of survey error are identified.

Have you ever wondered if conducting a questionnaire is a viable option for your research? In this article, we will focus on the one we know best: questionnaires. As with every research method, there are pros and cons. Get ready to discover the 10 biggest advantages like cost efficiency, scalability and quick results. But also disadvantages such as respondents with their own agenda and a possible lack of personalization.

As a mechanism for obtaining information and opinion, questionnaires have a number of advantages and disadvantages when compared with other evaluation tools. The key strengths and weaknesses of questionnaires are summarised in bullet points below. In general, questionnaires are effective mechanisms for efficient collection of certain kinds of information. They are not, however, a comprehensive means of evaluation and should be used to support and supplement other procedures for evaluating and improving teaching.

10 Advantages and Disadvantages of Questionnaires

The process of coding in the case of open ended questions opens a great possibility of subjectivity by the researcher. Module 9 : Introduction to Research. Theory and quantitative methodology 3. Importance of Quantitative Research 4. Quantitative Analysis 5. Quantitative Observation 6.

 Понятия не имею. - Похож на китайца. Японец, подумал Беккер. - Бедняга. Сердечный приступ. Беккер безучастно кивнул: - Так мне сказали. Лейтенант вздохнул и сочувственно помотал головой.

Сьюзан бросила быстрый взгляд на Хейла, но тот был всецело поглощен своим компьютером. Затаив дыхание, Сьюзан дважды щелкнула по конверту. - Северная Дакота, - прошептала она еле слышно.  - Посмотрим, кто ты. Сьюзан прочитала открывшееся сообщение, которое состояло из одной строчки, потом прочитала его еще. ПООБЕДАЕМ У АЛЬФРЕДА.

Questionnaire Method of Data Collection : Advantages and Disadvantages

Advantages of questionnaire

 Нет! - Он схватился за голову.  - Нет. Шестиэтажная ракета содрогалась. Стратмор нетвердыми шагами двинулся к дрожащему корпусу и упал на колени, как грешник перед лицом рассерженного божества. Все предпринятые им меры оказались бесполезными. Где-то в самом низу шахты воспламенились процессоры.

 А ну с дороги, пидор! - Некое существо с прической, больше всего напоминающей подушечку для иголок, прошествовало мимо, толкнув Беккера в бок. - Хорошенький! - крикнул еще один, сильно дернув его за галстук. - Хочешь со мной переспать? - Теперь на Беккера смотрела юная девица, похожая на персонаж фильма ужасов Рассвет мертвецов. Темнота коридора перетекла в просторное цементное помещение, пропитанное запахом пота и алкоголя, и Беккеру открылась абсолютно сюрреалистическая картина: в глубокой пещере двигались, слившись в сплошную массу, сотни человеческих тел. Они наклонялись и распрямлялись, прижав руки к бокам, а их головы при этом раскачивались, как безжизненные шары, едва прикрепленные к негнущимся спинам. Какие-то безумцы ныряли со сцены в это людское море, и его волны швыряли их вперед и назад, как волейбольные мячи на пляже.

Сьюзан поняла, в чем дело: все это время Хейл вел себя тихо, подозрительно тихо, поскольку отлично знал, что нет такой диагностики, в которой использовалась бы цепная мутация, тем более такая, которая занимала ТРАНСТЕКСТ уже восемнадцать часов. Хейл не проронил ни слова. Казалось, вспыхнувшая на его глазах перепалка абсолютно его не касается. Очевидно, Стратмор вдруг задумался:. У Сьюзан имелся на это ответ. - Коммандер, - она снова попыталась настоять на своем, - нам нужно поговорить. - Минутку! - отрезал Стратмор, вопросительно глядя на Хейла.

1.3 What is the purpose of questionnaires?

Джабба занес палец над клавишей Ввод. - Давайте же, - скомандовал Фонтейн. Джабба нажал на клавишу.

К счастью, поскольку сотрудникам шифровалки приходилось иметь дело с огромным количеством достаточно неопределенных материалов, они разработали сложную процедуру так называемого неортодоксального поиска. Такой поиск, по существу, представляет собой команду компьютеру просмотреть все строки знаков на жестком диске, сравнить их с данными громадного по объему словаря и пометить те из них, которые кажутся бессмысленными или произвольными. Это сложнейшая работа, заключающаяся в постоянном отсеивании лишнего, но она вполне выполнима. Сьюзан понимала, что, по всей логике, именно ей предстояло решить эту задачу. Она вздохнула, надеясь, что ей не придется раскаиваться в том, чем она собиралась заняться.

 Да. Создатель последнего шифра, который никто никогда не взломает. Сьюзан долго молчала. - Но… это значит… Стратмор посмотрел ей прямо в глаза: - Да. Энсей Танкадо только что превратил ТРАНСТЕКСТ в устаревшую рухлядь.

Было темно. Сьюзан остановилась, собираясь с духом. Звук выстрела продолжал звучать у нее в голове. Горячий пар пробивался через люк подобно вулканическим газам, предшествующим извержению. Проклиная себя за то, что не забрала у Стратмора беретту, она пыталась вспомнить, где осталось оружие - у него или же в Третьем узле.

Дверь слегка приоткрылась, и на него уставилось круглое немецкое лицо. Дэвид приветливо улыбнулся. Он не знал, как зовут этого человека. - Deutscher, ja. Вы немец.

Рядом со мной Сьюзан Флетчер. В тот момент Сьюзан поняла, за что уважает Тревора Стратмора. Все эти десять лет, в штиль и в бурю, он вел ее за. Уверенно и неуклонно. Не сбиваясь с курса.

 Quien es. Кто он. - Понятия не имею.

Где же. Наверняка Сьюзан уже начала волноваться. Уж не уехала ли она в Стоун-Мэнор без. Раздался сигнал, после которого надо было оставить сообщение.

 El queria que lo guardara. Он хотел его оставить, но я сказала. Во мне течет цыганская кровь, мы, цыганки, не только рыжеволосые, но еще и очень суеверные. Кольцо, которое отдает умирающий, - дурная примета. - Вы знаете эту девушку? - Беккер приступил к допросу.

Поскольку Цифровая крепость - это японский код, никто никогда не заподозрит, что наше агентство имеет к нему отношение. Единственное, что нам нужно, - осуществить такую подмену. Сьюзан сочла его план безукоризненным.

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3 Comments

  1. Gundenia B.

    Thanks to technological advances, you can now conduct research for a fraction of the cost and time.

    11.04.2021 at 13:52 Reply
  2. ClГ­maco M.

    Scottish Council for Research in Education, 15 St. John Street, Edinburgh Before discussing the advantages and disadvantages of using a questionnaire in​.

    14.04.2021 at 12:27 Reply
  3. Calixto G.

    Questionnaires are a very useful survey tool that allow large populations to be assessed with relative ease.

    17.04.2021 at 15:41 Reply

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