Ntt Docomo And Financial Services And Mobile Wallet And Pdf 2017
File Name: ntt docomo and financial services and mobile wallet and 2017.zip
Mobile payment also referred to as mobile money , mobile money transfer , and mobile wallet generally refer to payment services operated under financial regulation and performed from or via a mobile device. Instead of paying with cash , cheque , or credit cards , a consumer can use a mobile to pay for a wide range of services and digital or hard goods. Although the concept of using non-coin-based currency systems has a long history,  it is only in the 21st century that the technology to support such systems has become widely available.
Donald L. The growth of mobile commerce, or the purchase of services or goods using mobile technology, heavily depends on the availability, reliability, and acceptance of mobile wallet systems. Although several researchers have attempted to create models on the acceptance of such mobile payment systems, no single comprehensive framework has yet emerged.
Based upon a broad literature review of mobile technology adoption, a comprehensive model integrating eleven key consumer-related variables affecting the adoption of mobile payment systems is proposed. This model, based on established theoretical underpinnings originally established in the technology acceptance literature, extends existing frameworks by including attractiveness of alternatives and by proposing relationships between the key constructs. Japan is at the forefront of such technology and a number of domestic companies have been effectively developing and marketing mobile wallets for some time.
Using this proposed framework, we present the case of the successful adoption of Mobile Suica in Japan, which can serve as a model for the rapid diffusion of such payment systems for other countries where adoption has been unexpectedly slow.
The diffusion of technology-based payment solutions hinges on addressing the needs, perceived or real, of consumers whose adoption will determine whether any specific mobile payment system becomes a standard. Japan is at the forefront of such technology and a number of domestic companies have been successfully developing and integrating mobile payments for some time .
When asked about the meaning of electronic payments, more people in Japan think of payment systems using value-stored IC cards or mobile phones that they wave in front of dedicated card readers . According to the Japan Internet Commission , A range of new services leveraging mobile networks is spreading rapidly in Japan. In , NTT Docomo and Seven-Eleven Japan started "Kazasu Seikyusyo" holding your bill in the air , a service allowing people to receive billing statements to their mobile phone mobile wallet application, and then pay their bills at any Seven Eleven convenience store in Japan by holding their over the card readers set up at the counter .
Some public transportation operators in the Tokyo area offer parents a service to monitor their children's movements on the transportation network, based on their use of their IC-based transportation pass. Indeed, Japanese children usually start going to school on their own from the age of six and a service such as Tokyu's Kids Security Service, enables parents to receive email notifications to their mobile phone every time their children go through a ticket gate and use their IC pass .
Odakyu Railways offers a similar service that caters to the children that use Odakyu Lines with their IC pass . Yasuoka  reports that the decrease by 0.
However, the high penetration rate of mobile phones and the existence of a majority of mobile phones capable of making mobile payments  cannot alone explain the success of mobile payments.
Given the growing importance of mobile payment systems, the determining factors of their adoption remain unclear. First, although the literature abounds with various models, no single framework has yet emerged on those critical constructs from the consumer's perspective. Second, there are few empirical studies of mobile payment systems, which themselves have not yet taken off outside Japan. The proposed comprehensive model of mobile payment adoption is then illustrated with the case of mobile Suica, the most successful instance of mobile wallet in Japan and arguably the world, drawing on accessible data and existing surveys on mobile payment systems available in Japanese as well as in English before May To practitioners, this research enables a deeper understanding of how and why consumers are using mobile technologies.
It is vital to present relationships between constructs that might impact a consumer's propensity to use the mobile wallet. To academics, this research is based upon a review of established theoretical underpinnings, originally established in the technology acceptance literature. This paper presents in section two an overview of electronic wallets and mobile payments, with a focus on Japan, which is thus far the only country to have successfully adopted such payment system.
Based on the previous review of the relevant literature, section four identifies eleven key constructs for mobile payment adoption from a consumer perspective. Each construct is defined and evaluated in the broader context of mobile commerce and technology adoption, and detailed hypotheses on the relationships between those eleven constructs are proposed drawing upon past research.
Next, section five illustrates the proposed integrated framework with the case of Mobile Suica, the most successful mobile wallet to date in Japan and incidentally the world. Last, section five is a discussion of the study's findings, how they contribute to mobile payment adoption research, and how they fit in the broader context of the mobile payment ecosystem which includes all the stakeholders of this relatively new service.
Japan is thus far the only country to have successfully adopted a mobile payment system with millions of active users. Below is an overview of electronic wallets and mobile payments in the Japanese context.
Mobile payment instruments fall under the category of electronic money, which "includes all non-cash and non-paper payments instruments such as plastic cards and direct transfer and all money transactions via electronic channels" . Van Hove  notes that electronic wallets, although frequently compared to debit cards, should instead be compared to cash.
He explains that "the rationale behind their introduction - from the mid s onwards - was indeed to provide consumers and merchants with an electronic payment instrument that could handle small transactions cost effectively  p. The Committee on Payment and Settlement Systems of the Bank for International Settlements defines an electronic purse or wallet as "a reloadable multipurpose prepaid card which may be used for small retail or other payments instead of coins"  p.
Unlike debit or credit cards, transactions using an electronic wallet are carried out off-line without the direct involvement of financial intermediaries and the burden of these institutions' high fixed costs . Current contactless IC card-based payment solutions in Japan fall under this category. Mobile payment is defined as any payment in which a mobile device, such as a mobile phone or any other device capable of connecting to mobile communication networks, is utilized to initiate, authorize, and confirm a commercial transaction .
A mobile wallet is a type of electronic wallet which carries out transactions using a mobile device, and the former is an evolution of the latter. For that very reason, both are used concomitantly, as is the case of Japan, and each payment option offers both an electronic and a mobile wallet option to cater to users in different stages of technology adoption Suica, EDY.
There are currently two main technologies for such mobile payments, short message services SMS and near field communications NFC. In the case of SMS-based payment, the user sends a payment request via an SMS text message to a short code and a premium charge is applied to its phone bill.
Such payment system is mostly used for the purchase of digital services such as music and ringtones. Because messages can take time to reach the merchant or can easily get lost, the system is deemed slow and poorly reliable. SMS are virtually non-existing in Japan, for either communication or payment purposes. Instead, most mobile payment systems rely on NFC, whereby the user waves an NFC chip-equipped mobile phone with the relevant application near an NFC reader module to make a transaction.
Although they require up-front investment in specially equipped handsets and readers, NFC-based payments are considered fast and reliable.
NFC allow various types of monetary and non-monetary transactions, involving the exchange of payment information only, both the exchange of payment details and information relevant to the transaction, or transmitting and storing identification information. For those transactions involving only payment information, IC cards or mobile phones are used to transfer payment information for goods and services, such as buying drinks from a vending machine or items at a convenience store.
No information other than payment instruction is transmitted in this type of transaction, which makes it well suited for low-value micropayments. Another type of transaction enables to store, process, and exchange information related to the transaction, making it possible for mobile phones to act as tickets, keys or identification. Current applications consist of car park payments and airline check in. In the former, a mobile phone keeps track of the time when the driver entered and exited, thus making paper tickets and parking attendants unnecessary.
In the latter, airline passengers identify themselves and carry out the check in process with the ticket information contained in their mobile phone. The goal of this paper is not to catalog all available mobile payment services, but rather to explore the drivers of consumer adoption among those systems which have been widely adopted, such as mobile Suica in Japan. The theoretical underpinnings of technology adoption and payment and banking were examined, with a particular focus on empirical studies dealing with mobile technology adoption, mobile commerce, mobile payments and wallet adoption.
The literature review specifically addresses the consumer perspective with respect to mobile payment system adoption. Studying adoption, Venkatesh, et al. They collectively formed a model called the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology UTAUT and suggested that individual reactions to using information technology directly affect intentions to use information technology that in turn influences the actual use of information technology.
Lu, Yao and Yu  suggested that behavioral sciences and individual psychology are strong determinants of adoption of mobile technology. They suggested that while perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use are strong variables in consumer willingness to adopt mobile technology, variables such as personal innovativeness and social influence must also be taken into consideration in determining consumer acceptance.
Carlsson, et al. They found that variables such as performance expectancy, effort expectancy, and attitude toward using were directly related to behavioral intention. Lee  investigated the impact of perceptions of interactivity on consumer trust and transactions in mobile commerce and concluded that trust does in fact play a significant role in determining consumer transaction intentions. Lin and Wang  examined the factors that contributed to customer loyalty in mobile commerce; perceived value and trust were found to be directly related to customer satisfaction and customer loyalty; customer satisfaction was also suggested to positively affect customer loyalty; and habit was proposed to determine customer loyalty.
They also found that customer loyalty was directly affected by perceived value, trust, habit, and customer satisfaction.
Customer loyalty was evaluated to be a strong determining factor in acceptance of mobile commerce. Pavlou, et al. Amoroso and Hunsinger - developed a model to better understand the factors that are most important in predicting consumers' behavioral intention to purchase over the Internet. This research expands the original TAM by incorporating additional constructs such as trust, privacy, perceived risk, expectations of Internet information and Web site quality, e-satisfaction, and e-loyalty.
This research showed significant relationships with factors including inertia, convenience, perceived value, and e-loyalty all influenced the e-satisfaction construct with respect to mobile applications.
Kuo, Wu, and Deng  found that service quality positively influences both perceived value and customer satisfaction. Perceived value positively influenced both customer satisfaction and post-purchase intention and that customer satisfaction positively influenced post-purchase intention. Several studies examined online payments acceptance building the infrastructure for mobile payment applications. He and Mykytyn  examined the factors for consumer adoption of online payment systems.
They found that a majority of participants favored the concept of online payments with the primary consideration of risk being associated with making online payments. Rigopoulos and Askounis  developed a model to examine users' attitude towards adopting online payments and proposed evaluating consumers' adoption of proposed technology finding perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and intention to use as all being positively associated with consumers' actual usage of online payments.
Luo, Zhang and Shim  examined trust and risk perceptions in the adoption stage of the wireless Internet platform, suggesting a research model to suggest factors such as trust, risk, self-efficacy, and performance expectancy which drive the consumer acceptance of mobile banking services. Deng, Lu, and Chen  tested a model for online banking acceptance with three new constructs including perceived credibility, SMS usage, and perceived service cost.
Neither perceived ease of use, perceived credibility, nor perceived cost was found to have significant effects on user's behavioral attitude toward mobile banking. The next set of research studied the adoption of mobile payments.
Pousttchi and Wiedermann  evaluated what key influences affected consumers to use mobile payments and found that subjective security was not a primary driver of mobile payment acceptance.
They found that perceived confidentiality of payment details and perceived trustworthiness were strongly correlated. Four key variables were found to directly impacting consumer intention and usage behavior: performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence, and facilitating conditions.
Au and Zafar  studied the factors that account for patterns of adoption of mobile payments in multiple countries, suggesting that consumers are not the only determinants of mobile payment acceptance, but also merchants, service providers, and various regulatory bodies - bringing in the concept of the mobile payment ecosystem. The results indicated that the primary factors that affected a country's adoption of the mobile payments included how the stakeholders correlate with each other as well as the conditions of the environment in which such stakeholders operate.
Chen  examined which determinants affected consumer use of mobile payments m-payments. Consumer acceptance was determined by four factors: perceived use, perceived ease of use, perceived risk, and compatibility. The strongest factor to sway consumer acceptance was compatibility. Compatibility refers to the extent to which m-payment is consistent with the prospective user's lifestyle and the way he or she likes to shop. Cheong, Park and Hwang  concluded that perceived facilitating conditions were directly related to perceived usefulness and intention to use.
However, move-in cost and attractiveness of alternatives were negatively related and facilitating condition was in fact found to be a significant contributor of perceived usefulness and intention to use. Consumers that have little loyalty to credit card companies would possibly be more readily open to switching to mobile payment services. Mallat and Tuunainen  looked at the factors affecting merchants' acceptance of mobile payment systems are evaluated and found that the primary adoption drivers that directly affect implementation of mobile payment systems are related to the objective of either increasing sales or reducing costs of payment processing.
They suggested barriers of such mobile payment adoption for merchants include complexity of the systems, unfavorable revenue, lack of critical mass, and lack of standardization. They primarily identified primary prerequisites, drivers, and barriers that influence the merchant's adoption of mobile payment systems.
Mbogo  studied the various factors that contribute to success with use of mobile payments within micro-businesses in Kenya, concluding that convenience of the money transfer technology plus its accessibility, cost, support and security factors are related to behavioral intention to use and actual usage of the mobile payment services. He concluded that perceived convenience, perceived ease of accessibility, and perceived support had positive direct relationships with the intention to use mobile payment services.
Usage rate of the mobile payment app d Barai in Japan 2019, by age
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Использование ТРАНСТЕКСТА Агентством национальной безопасности должно было регулироваться примерно так же, как в случае ФБР, которому для установки подслушивающих устройств необходимо судебное постановление. Программное обеспечение ТРАНСТЕКСТА по раскрытию кодов должно храниться в Федеральной резервной системе и министерстве юстиции. Это должно было гарантировать, что АНБ не сможет перехватывать частную переписку законопослушных граждан во всем мире. Однако когда настало время загрузки программного обеспечения, персоналу, работавшему с ТРАНСТЕКСТОМ, объявили, что планы изменились. В связи с чрезвычайной обстановкой, в которой обычно осуществляется антитеррористическая деятельность АНБ, ТРАНСТЕКСТ станет независимым инструментом дешифровки, использование которого будет регулироваться исключительно самим АНБ. Энсей Танкадо был возмущен.
В горле нестерпимо горело. Все вокруг светилось ярко-красными огнями. Шифровалка умирала. То же самое будет и со мной, - подумала. Сьюзан вспомнила о единственном остающемся выходе - личном лифте Стратмора. Но она понимала, что надежды нет: электроника вряд ли уцелела после катастрофы.
Японские иероглифы. Стратмор покачал головой.
Труп надо передвинуть. Стратмор медленно приближался к застывшему в гротескной лозе телу, не сводя с него глаз. Он схватил убитого за запястье; кожа была похожа на обгоревший пенопласт, тело полностью обезвожено.
Теперь он молил Бога, чтобы священник не торопился, ведь как только служба закончится, он будет вынужден встать, хотя бы для того чтобы пропустить соседей по скамье.