Exercise 25 Special Senses Hearing And Equilibrium Pdf
File Name: exercise 25 special senses hearing and equilibrium .zip
Trace the pathway through which vibrations are transmitted to stimulate the hair cells in the spiral organ.
- Chapter 13 Special Senses The Eye And Ear Answers
- Exercise 25 Review Sheet Special Senses Hearing And Equilibrium
- Exercise 25 - Special Senses: Hearing And Equilibrium
Dizziness is a symptom not a disease. It may be defined as a sensation of unsteadiness, imbalance, or disorientation in relation to an individual's surroundings. The symptom of dizziness may vary widely from person to person and be caused by many difference diseases.
Sensory receptors and pathways provide us information about our internal and external environment. The information provided allows us to analyze and appropriately respond to changing situations. The ability to react and respond helps in feedback mechanisms to maintain homeostasis.
Chapter 13 Special Senses The Eye And Ear Answers
Sensory receptors and pathways provide us information about our internal and external environment. The information provided allows us to analyze and appropriately respond to changing situations. The ability to react and respond helps in feedback mechanisms to maintain homeostasis. Sensory pathways have specific components that provide organization and localization for their responses.
The parts for sensory pathways are:. Such stimuli can be mechanical, chemical, or electrical. These tracts are found in the white matter of the spinal cord or the brain. Once processed, other areas called association areas within the brain lobes are responsible for analyzing, storing, and sending assessments of the sensory input to the motor regions of the frontal lobe of the brain.
Other characteristics of sensory information include projection, phantom pain, intensity, contrast, adaptation, and after-image. Projection and phantom pain are similar. Even though a particular sensory receptor picks up the signal, it is the brain that actually detects the sense, not the sensory receptor or neuron. When the impulses arrive, the brain creates a projection based on the type of sensory neuron, and the strength and duration of the initial stimulus.
Intensity is the weakness or strength of a sensory signal. Weaker stimuli activate only a small number of receptors. The more receptors that are activated, the more impulses are sent, and the more intense interpretation is given.
Timing is important in helping with the interpretation of intensity. How fast an impulse travels is affected by size and myelination of the neuron. The slower, smaller fibers will create a duller, diffuse interpretation to the sensation. The larger, myelated fibers will create an interpretation of very sharp, pin point localization.
Contrast is the ability to differentiate between two different sensory stimui , either from a previous or simultaneous sensation. When the brain compares the newer sensation to the other, it may be diminished or exaggerated. An example would be when you walk into an air conditioned room from an outside environment that is hot and humid.
The air conditioned room feels much cooler than the actual thermostat reading. Adaptation is a decreased response to a continuous stimulus. The receptors generate fewer impulses when a stimulus continues at the same intensity. An example of this is when someone who is wearing perfume or aftershave walks into the room. You detect the smell at first, but as they remain in the room, you become unaware of the olfactory sensation.
After image is the sensation that remains even after the stimulus has stopped. You may have experienced this when a bright light is shone into your eyes and the image is still seen on the retina. A bright light source could be a flashbulb from a camera, or the pictures taken of your eye during a retinal fundic exam. Recall that the PNS is the peripheral nervous system and functions to send information to the CNS that allows for delivery of information to effector cells.
The information that travels to the CNS does so along sensory afferent neurons. Motor efferent neurons carry information from the CNS for an action response by effector cells such as muscle or glands.
The sensory portion of the PNS division can be divided into two parts:. General or somatic body senses deal with receptors located in the skin, tendons, and muscles skeletal, cardiac, and smooth. These sensory receptors respond to a specific stimulus and impulses are carried by the PNS, spinal nerves or cranial nerves, to the CNS. General or somatic sensory neurons are pseudounipolar in structure.
The impulses detected by the general senses are pain, temperature, touch, pressure, and position. These impulses follow specific pathways to the brain where they are analyzed, potentially stored for further comparisons, and usually acted on by returning a motor response command from the brain to the body.
The intensity of a sensation depends on its frequency. The more frequently an impulse is received, the stronger the sensation is interpreted. The frequency of the impulse is determined by the type and location of the sensory receptor, as well as its size and myelinatin properties.
The general body sensory receptors are as follows:. Thermoreceptors are responsible for transmitting the sense of temperature. The two types of temperature receptors are cold and hot and both are located in the skin.
Thermoreceptor anatomy consists of free nerve endings located within various regions of the skin. Cold receptors are located in the upper regions of the dermis. They are more numerous than heat receptors. Heat receptors are located deep in the dermis.
Mechanoreceptors are responsible for transmitting information regarding mechanical displacement of tissues. The two types of mechanoreceptors are designed for touch and pressure. Two types of touch are pressure are light, superficial and heavy, deep. Touch receptors are the Merkel disc, Meissner corpuscles, and Krause end bulb.
These receptors have a light connective tissue wrapping around the dendrite end of the neurons. Free nerve endings can also be involved with touch and are seen wrapped around the base of hair follicles.
The merkel disc and meissner corpuscles are located in the papillary layer of the dermis. They are responsible for light touch or very light stimuli. Krause end bulbs are in the mid dermis. Pressure receptors are the Pacinian corpuscle and the Ruffini end bulbs. Both have more extensive layers of connective tissue covering the dendrite portion of the neuron and both are located mid to deep in the dermis. Pacinian corpuscles are also found in ligaments and tendons of joints. Pressure receptors respond to heavy touch, deep pressure, and vibration.
Nocireceptors are responsible for transmitting the sensory impulse of pain. The receptor anatomically is a free nerve ending and is located in the epidermis and upper dermal layers of the skin.
Recall that any skin temperature changes above or below the thermoreceptor threshold can trigger a pain sensation. Another pain phenomenon involves the autonomic nervous system ANS. The visceral organs have stretch receptors, pressure receptors, and chemical receptors. When one of these receptors is stimulated, the signal is sent along the same pathways as pain from the skin.
Therefore, all sensory information from the ANS is then interpreted as pain from the skin, since it follows the somatic pain pathways to the brain. This is called referred pain.
The back pain that a patient may feel could be muscle pain, skeletal pain, or kidney pain. Pain nerve fibers come in two types. Ones that are small and myelinated give the sense of a very sharp, localized, and acute sudden pain sensation. Impulses are conducted more quickly and can stop quickly once the pain source is removed. Those nerve fibers that are larger and nonmyelinated give the sense of dull, diffuse, and chronic long term pain sensation.
Impulses travel more slowly to the CNS and may linger once the original stimulus is removed. The midbrain and diencephalon can regulate pain impulses to the brain and can respond quickly by signaling motor responses from appropriate CN or spinal nerves. Also, the brainstem and diencephalon areas can release pain inhibiting substances such as enkephalins and endorphins. Think of when you may have stepped on something sharp. You reacted immediately before you had a chance to think.
We are consciously aware of the pain stimulus and the parietal lobe of the cerebral cortex still receives the pain impulse in order to determine location and intensity so that an appropriate motor response can be maintained or initiated. Proprioceptors are responsible for transmitting the sensory impulse of position. This primarily involves the position and movement of body joints, the proper tension in tendons and ligaments, and the amount of muscle length and contraction state.
The purpose of Proprioceptors is to prevent connective tissue strain or muscle sprain. An example of a proprioceptor is a muscle spindle, which is a modified skeletal muscle fiber with a sensory nerve wrapped around it.
Muscle spindles are responsible for information relating to stretch and are sometimes called stretch receptors. Several pathways allow for these impulses position, stretch, contraction, tension, etc. Another pathway sends this proprioceptive information to the cerebellum where it is integrated with signals from the inner ear to help maintain balance and equilibrium.
This also allows the cerebellum to coordinate and integrate cortical signals for any muscle activity. Other terms used for proprioception is muscle sense or kinesthetic sense. Skin Model. Skin Wall Mount. Skin Wall Mount with Somatic Sensory.
Skin poster. Special senses have a bipolar neuron involved in the anatomy, either as a receptor or specialized cells that are tied to the receptor. They are located in protected areas by bones of the skull. Sensory information is directed along a cranial nerve to one of the primary sensory lobes of the brain and then assessed and possibly stored in the association areas of the brain.
Both of these senses require that the chemicals be dissolved for sensory stimulation. Taste or gustation occurs in the tongue and pharynx.
Exercise 25 Review Sheet Special Senses Hearing And Equilibrium
The ear is the sense organ that enables us to hear. Hearing can be defined as the perception of sound energy via the brain and central nervous system. Hearing consists of two components: identification of sounds what the sound is and localisation of those sounds where the sounds are coming from. The ear is divided into three main parts — the outer ear , the middle ear , and the inner ear. The inner ear is filled with fluid. The inner ear also contains the receptors for sound which convert fluid motion into electrical signals known as action potentials that are sent to the brain to enable sound perception. The airborne sound waves must therefore be channelled toward and transferred into the inner ear for hearing to occur.
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REVIEW SHEET exercise. Special Senses: Hearing and Equilibrium. Review Sheet Anatomy of the Ear. 1. Select the terms from column B that apply.
Exercise 25 - Special Senses: Hearing And Equilibrium
Along with audition, the inner ear is responsible for encoding information about equilibrium , the sense of balance. A similar mechanoreceptor—a hair cell with stereocilia—senses head position, head movement, and whether our bodies are in motion. These cells are located within the vestibule of the inner ear. Head position is sensed by the utricle and saccule , whereas head movement is sensed by the semicircular canals.
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A more recent article on dizziness is available. LORI M. Patient information: See related handout on dizziness , written by the authors of this article. Dizziness accounts for an estimated 5 percent of primary care clinic visits.
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