validity and reliability in educational research pdf

Validity And Reliability In Educational Research Pdf

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Instrument, Validity, Reliability

Instrument is the general term that researchers use for a measurement device survey, test, questionnaire, etc. To help distinguish between instrument and instrumentation, consider that the instrument is the device and instrumentation is the course of action the process of developing, testing, and using the device. Instruments fall into two broad categories, researcher-completed and subject-completed, distinguished by those instruments that researchers administer versus those that are completed by participants.

Researchers chose which type of instrument, or instruments, to use based on the research question. Examples are listed below:. Example usability problems include:. Validity and reliability concerns discussed below will help alleviate usability issues.

For now, we can identify five usability considerations:. It is best to use an existing instrument, one that has been developed and tested numerous times, such as can be found in the Mental Measurements Yearbook. We will turn to why next. Validity is the extent to which an instrument measures what it is supposed to measure and performs as it is designed to perform. As a process, validation involves collecting and analyzing data to assess the accuracy of an instrument.

There are numerous statistical tests and measures to assess the validity of quantitative instruments, which generally involves pilot testing. The remainder of this discussion focuses on external validity and content validity. External validity is the extent to which the results of a study can be generalized from a sample to a population. Establishing eternal validity for an instrument, then, follows directly from sampling.

Recall that a sample should be an accurate representation of a population, because the total population may not be available. An instrument that is externally valid helps obtain population generalizability, or the degree to which a sample represents the population. Content validity refers to the appropriateness of the content of an instrument.

In other words, do the measures questions, observation logs, etc. This is particularly important with achievement tests. Consider that a test developer wants to maximize the validity of a unit test for 7th grade mathematics. This would involve taking representative questions from each of the sections of the unit and evaluating them against the desired outcomes.

Reliability can be thought of as consistency. Does the instrument consistently measure what it is intended to measure? It is not possible to calculate reliability; however, there are four general estimators that you may encounter in reading research:.

Reliability is directly related to the validity of the measure. There are several important principles. First, a test can be considered reliable, but not valid. Consider the SAT, used as a predictor of success in college. It is a reliable test high scores relate to high GPA , though only a moderately valid indicator of success due to the lack of structured environment — class attendance, parent-regulated study, and sleeping habits — each holistically related to success. Second, validity is more important than reliability.

Using the above example, college admissions may consider the SAT a reliable test, but not necessarily a valid measure of other quantities colleges seek, such as leadership capability, altruism, and civic involvement.

Finally, the most useful instrument is both valid and reliable. Proponents of the SAT argue that it is both. Thus far, we have discussed Instrumentation as related to mostly quantitative measurement. Some qualitative researchers reject the concept of validity due to the constructivist viewpoint that reality is unique to the individual, and cannot be generalized. These researchers argue for a different standard for judging research quality.

This resource was created by Dr. Patrick Biddix Ph. Research Rundowns. Instrument, Validity, Reliability. Example usability problems include: Students are asked to rate a lesson immediately after class, but there are only a few minutes before the next class begins problem with administration.

Students are asked to keep self-checklists of their after school activities, but the directions are complicated and the item descriptions confusing problem with interpretation. For now, we can identify five usability considerations: How long will it take to administer?

Are the directions clear? How easy is it to score? Do equivalent forms exist? Have any problems been reported by others who used it? Part II: Validity Validity is the extent to which an instrument measures what it is supposed to measure and performs as it is designed to perform. Test-Retest Reliability : The consistency of a measure evaluated over time. Parallel-Forms Reliability: The reliability of two tests constructed the same way, from the same content.

Relating Reliability and Validity Reliability is directly related to the validity of the measure. Share this: Twitter Facebook.

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Assignment: Reliability and Validity in Research

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Reliability vs validity: what’s the difference?

Issues of research reliability and validity need to be addressed in methodology chapter in a concise manner. Reliability refers to the extent to which the same answers can be obtained using the same instruments more than one time. In simple terms, if your research is associated with high levels of reliability, then other researchers need to be able to generate the same results, using the same research methods under similar conditions. According to Wilson reliability issues are most of the time closely associated with subjectivity and once a researcher adopts a subjective approach towards the study, then the level of reliability of the work is going to be compromised.

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2 Comments

  1. Jamie O.

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    12.04.2021 at 20:48 Reply
  2. Clothilde C.

    PDF | Questionnaire is one of the most widely used tools to collect data in especially social validity type to test their research instrument (questionnaire/​survey). Validity and reliability issues in educational research.

    14.04.2021 at 14:38 Reply

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