File Name: plot plan and equipment layout .zip
Chemical Engineering. Plant layout proceeds by iteration, but we must start the loop somewhere. The purpose of a good site layout is to provide a safe and economical flow of materials and people around a plant which is socially acceptable to workers and neighbors to produce a specified product reliably and cost-effectively.
A plot plan is an architecture, engineering , or landscape architecture plan , which shows the buildings , utility runs, and equipment layout, the position of roads and other constructions of an existing or proposed project site at a defined scale.
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Plumbing Plan Drawing Pdf
Learning Objectives Equipment layout is based on certain considerations. The final plant design is executed on the this drawing and it should be seen that plant should be safe and economical.
This equipment layout is very important because this is used for the execution of plant. The piping engineer has to understand the concept of equipment layout and consideration.
While preparing layout, the piping engineer should design a steady process, non-hazardous utility and facility.
Introduction In general the various process plants we come across are petroleum refineries, petrochemical complexes, fertiliser plants, and chemical and pharmaceutical plants which need special attention due to the nature of materials and products handled. Before starting the development of the plant layout, the following information is required. Process units and capacities. A flow diagram indicating the process flow sequence. Utility requirement. Number of storage tanks and also open storage areas.
Covered storage required. Number of flares As applicable. Grouping philosophy for utilities. Non-plant building i. Ideally, before site selection, a preliminary layout should be made. The data collected during the site selection stage shall be given due consideration at the time of the equipment layout.
A few points to be considered are: i. Environment condition relative to adjacent properties i. Soil conditions, prevailing wind direction. Source of water supply and the supply point with respect to the plot. Electric supply point with respect to the plot.
Effluent disposal point and other drainages. Geographical factors i. Major Consideration in Plant Layout The most economical plant layout is that in which the spacing of the main equipment is such that it minimises interconnecting pipe work and structural steel work. Normally equipment should be laid out in sequence to suit the process flow but exception to this arises from the desirability to group certain tanks, pumps or perhaps to isolate hazardous operations according to statutory rules and regulations.
The use of the single stream or multiple stream flow pattern will affect the layout. The major variables affecting the final layout are interconnected pipe sizes, insulation thickness, steel work spacing, matters of operational convenience, safety, ease of erection and maintenance which calls for expiries of critical judgment on the experience and the study of existing and know limitation. Economic Basically economic consideration means installing the unit in the smallest possible space, consistent with the operability ease of piping material, structural sheets and concrete with the proper layout considering further economies which can be achieved in way of pumping and utilities.
Safety Where toxic or hazardous materials are handled, layout may be needed to isolate a section of the plan equipment, which could be a possible source of hazard. It should be grouped together and where possible located separately from other areas of the plant.
Mechanical equipment handling flammable or volatile liquids which could easily leak or spill out of the equipment thus causing flammable conditions. However such consideration should not override considerations of cost. For instance, the process heater must necessarily be located close to other equipment to conserve expensive alloy piping. Furnaces using gas as a feedstock do not normally constitute hazards. Due consideration shall be given for fire hazardous areas and isolated by providing firewall, fire door, etc.
The area equipment area handling acids or other toxic material, which cause damage or endanger personnel by their spillage should in general be grouped together and isolated. To isolate hazardous areas it may be necessary to build walls with self-closing doors. The other process consideration could be the limitation of pressure or temperature drop in the transfer lines deciding the proximity of the furnace, reactors and columns.
Operational Thought should be given to the location of equipment requiring frequent attendance by operation personnel and the relative position of the control room to obtain the shortest and most direct route for operator. When on routine operation however the control room should be placed so that they are easily accessible and the indicators are easily readable. Generally a batch or semi batch process needs more attention by the operator and therefore more consideration has to be paid to the ergonomics of the layout.
Maintenance The need to remove for servicing, retuning or replacements, the heavy, servicing equipment. The indivisible plant will dictate their location when access for cranes is called for regular or rotating and other machinery calling for dismantling. This often makes their grouping within the machine house desirable. The position of items needing replacement of internal spent catalyst etc. Constructional The plot should be so designed that adequate access is available to lift the large items of equipment or columns into place.
Such equipment is positioned close to the boundary limits so that erection must take place from outside these limits. A careful check must be undertaken to ascertain whether space will be available at the time of erection for positioning the crane or lifting the delivery equipment which is known, may well arrive fairly late in the construction programme and therefore have to be fitted into place after most of the surrounding equipment has already been installed.
It is important that the insulation requirement be considered during the layout of the plant. Appearance: Aesthetic An attractively laid out plant with the equipment in rows also economically laid out gives an aesthetic appearance.
The building structure and groups of equipment should form a neat, symmetrical balanced layout consistent with keeping the pipe run to a minimum and allowing proper access for maintenance.
The tower and large vertical vessels should be arranged in rows with a common centreline. They should be of similar size but if the diameter varies, due note must be taken of the building line manholes on the adjacent tower should be at a similar elevation and orientation to streams. These as far as possible should be made identical.
Such arrangement for parallel streams or similar groups of process equipment require much the design work and also for construction and subsequently operation but help in reducing the amount of standby equipment. Future Expansion Thought should be given to the likely expansion of both equipment and pipe work, so that additions can be erected and tested with the minimum interference to plant operations.
At least 30 m distance from flame proof plant area is needed for safe welding where no special precaution are needed. Buildings Plant buildings should be kept to a minimum on the basis that most of equipment including pumps, heat exchanger boilers, cyclones, etc. The philosophy should be that the plant is supported on an open steel structure unless there is good reason not to do so.
Thus it is to be installed in the open with centralised control facilities housed in buildings. To prevent contamination, food, pharmaceutical and bio-chemical plants require to be in a building.
Natural illumination may be obtained by the use of patent glazing windows or translucent sheets in the sidewalls or the roof. Exhaust may be required for treatment of filter washer, separation. Techniques for Layout There is no single technique leading to the best arrangement in any problem. Layout may be considered at several stages from the selection of the site and arrangement of the plant on it through block layout.
The three basic principles of layout planning are: 1 Plan the whole, then the detail, Individual aspects must be subservient to the whole and sub optimisation avoided.
The ideal layout is free from restrictions and gives a datum. It is seldom that a single layout is "BEST" for each criterion. Planning more than one permits comparison and leads to greater confidence in making the final selection. A simplified network showing the integration of the plant layout and design activities should be given. Details of Techniques for Layout 1 Initial development of the layout. Why it is placed there? Where else could it be?
Correlation and compatibility - what is impossible or inadmissible. The correlation chart is a diagrammatic method of determining the effect of constraints. The simplest manual method is probably one of trial and error in which items are situated near one another as suggested by significant costs and the arrangement modified with reference to the travel chart.
Layout Analogues 1 Cut out-To visualise plant layout -2 dimensional scale templates or scale cutouts of unit areas and equipment layout are prepared. Computers If there are six alternate positions for each of one of the six blocks then there are feasible combinations of these six blocks. In general, for a computerised plant layout, the judgment of the engineer has to be combined with the calculation power of the computer. Usage of the computer is on the evaluation of systematic techniques.
Small problems can be handled manually with various co-relation and compatibility methods. The entire plot area will be divided into blocks, the size of the blocks depend on the facilities to be accommodated.
While locating the blocks and further sub-blocks within them, the following points runs should also be minimum. In undulating areas, storage tanks shall be located at lower elevations. The preferred location is at the lower elevation than the other plant units in order to facilitate gravity flow.
The fire station shall be near the main gate with a straight approach to the process units and other critical areas. If the shut downs are be at different times, it is preferable to increase the distance between the two units so that the risk for the operating units due to heat jobs in the units under shut down can be minimised.
Also this will facilitate easy maintenance. The limitations imposed by the neighbourhood facilities cannot be ignored, e. The first two shall be located upwind of the Process units and the last two on the downwind directions of the process units.
So also equipment which need removal of parts and also for free access for hoisting equipment. It is preferable to have similar type of facilities with adjacent space for expansion adjacent. Care shall be taken to install the expansion facilities without any disturbance to the existing facility. Fire fighting facilities are to be provided on these roads.
There shall always be an alternative approach for fire fighting and maintenance in case one route is blocked. Plant layout needs statutory approvals before implementation. Some of the statutory approving codes are: 1. Indian Factories Act 2.
Plot Plan Design: Process Requirements
It should meet the following requirements:. Statutory regulations e. If most of the equipment are of large size then scale can be reduced to , or e. Piping Engineer should first develop a one-plane elevation of all equipment to scale and relatively locate to fulfil process requirements. He should keep good margins for nozzle lengths, bends, valves, slopes and distances between equipment, etc. After deciding floor elevations and number of floors, work can start on preliminary arrangement drawings which should show each floor plan as well as elevation views at different sections. Client Preference for type of structure, maintenance facilities, like cranes, monorails, operational amenities like office, toilet block, change room, lunch room aesthetical preferences, etc.
The purpose of this research is to solve the problems of unreasonable layout of the production plant, disorder of the logistics process, and unbalanced production line in discrete manufacturing plants. By analyzing the production process and characteristics, the timed Petri net model is constructed according to the function and connection of each production unit, which is then used to generate a FlexSim simulation model of the production plant logistics system with a simulation software. Therewith the FlexSim simulation model is used to simulate the original layout of the plant, and to analyse the simulation data synthetically to put forward an improvement strategy. Combined with the use of the systematic layout planning method to analyze the overall layout of the plant and logistics relations, we infer the relevant drawings between the production units and determine the improved layout of the facilities. Finally, by comparing the before and after improvement simulation results, it is verified that the combination of timed Petri nets and systematic layout planning is effective to ameliorate the layout of the plant facilities and the logistics system. This method makes up for the factors that traditional methods have not considered, achieves the goal of reducing the cross circuitous route of the plant and the idle rate of equipment, and improving the efficiency of production. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Plot Layout. Actual layout of the plot, fences, general area allocation. 3. Equipment Layout. ChE - Design I. Page 4. PLANT LAYOUT.
Equipment Layout Unit Plot Plan
Objective : Seeking a challenging and demanding position as a Sr. Piping Designer to render professional skills and add value to organizational growth and objectives. Evaluated and designed piping systems with respect to process flow, thermal expansion, supports, vibration, and fabrication considerations. Detailed drawings of pipe supports and bill-of-materials.
Learning Objectives Equipment layout is based on certain considerations. The final plant design is executed on the this drawing and it should be seen that plant should be safe and economical. This equipment layout is very important because this is used for the execution of plant.
Drawings, which are shown on this page, are fictitious, but they have been drawn a functional Plot Plan of a Process Plant. Over the years, I've seen a lot of Plot Plans of several engineering companies.
Его мечта о Цифровой крепости рухнула, и он полностью отдавал себе в этом отчет. Теперь у него осталась только Сьюзан. Впервые за много лет он вынужден был признать, что жизнь - это не только служение своей стране и профессиональная честь. Я отдал лучшие годы жизни своей стране и исполнению своего долга. А как же любовь.
Именно так, черт возьми. Я был там, внизу. Резервное питание подает слишком мало фреона. - Спасибо за подсказку, - сказал Стратмор. - У ТРАНСТЕКСТА есть автоматический выключатель.
Стратмор наморщил лоб и прикусил губу. Мысли его метались. Он, конечно, с легкостью мог набрать код лифта и отправить Сьюзан домой, но она нужна ему. Она должна помочь ему найти ключ в компьютере Хейла. Стратмор пока не сказал ей, что этот ключ представляет для него отнюдь не только академический интерес.
Коммандер, не думаете же вы… - Сьюзан расхохоталась.