grafting and budding fruit trees pdf

Grafting And Budding Fruit Trees Pdf

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Grafting is a method of asexual plant propagation that joins plant parts from different plants together so they will heal and grow as one plant.

Log In. Grafting and budding are horticultural techniques used to join parts from two or more plants so that they appear to grow as a single plant.

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Grafting Fruit Trees

Log In. Grafting and budding are horticultural techniques used to join parts from two or more plants so that they appear to grow as a single plant. In grafting, the upper part scion of one plant grows on the root system rootstock of another plant. In the budding process, a bud is taken from one plant and grown on another.

Although budding is considered a modern art and science, grafting is not new. The practice of grafting can be traced back 4, years to ancient China and Mesopotamia. As early as 2, years ago, people recognized the incompatibility problems that may occur when grafting olives and other fruiting trees.

Since grafting and budding are asexual or vegetative methods of propagation, the new plant that grows from the scion or bud will be exactly like the plant it came from. These methods of plant reproduction are usually chosen because cuttings from the desired plant root poorly or not at all.

Also, these methods give the plant a certain characteristic of the rootstock - for example, hardiness, drought tolerance, or disease resistance. Since both methods require extensive knowledge of nursery crop species and their compatibility, grafting and budding are two techniques that are usually practiced only by more experienced nursery operators. Most woody nursery plants can be grafted or budded, but both processes are labor intensive and require a great deal of skill.

For these reasons they can be expensive and come with no guarantee of success. The nurseryman must therefore see in them a marked advantage over more convenient propagation techniques to justify the time and cost.

Clones or varieties within a species can usually be grafted or budded interchangeably. For example, Pink Sachet dogwood can be budded or grafted onto White Flowering dogwood rootstock and vice versa. Bradford pear can be grafted or budded onto Callery pear rootstock and vice versa. However, Pink Sachet dogwood cannot be grafted or budded onto Callery pear. Grafting and budding can be performed only at very specific times when weather conditions and the physiological stage of plant growth are both optimum.

The timing depends on the species and the technique used. For example, conditions are usually satisfactory in June for budding peaches, but August and early September are the best months to bud dogwoods. Conversely, flowering pears can be grafted while they are dormant in December and January or budded during July and August.

Budding and grafting may increase the productivity of certain horticultural crops because they make it possible to do the following things:. When to Graft Unlike budding, which can be performed before or during the growing season, most grafting is done during winter and early spring while both scion and rootstock are still dormant.

Containerized plants may be moved indoors during the actual grafting process; after grafting, these plants are placed in protected areas or in unheated overwintering houses. Field-grown stock, of course, must be grafted in place. Some deciduous trees are commonly grafted as bare rootstock during the winter and stored until spring planting.

Indoor winter grafting is often referred to as bench grafting because it is accomplished at a bench. Selecting and Handling Scion Wood The best quality scion wood usually comes from shoots grown the previous season. Scions should be severed with sharp, clean shears or knives and placed immediately in moistened burlap or plastic bags.

It is good practice during the harvesting of scions and the making of grafts to clean the cutting tools regularly. This may be done by flaming or immersing them in a sterilizing solution.

Isopropyl rubbing alcohol also works well as a sterilant, although it evaporates quite readily. An alternative sterilizing solution may be prepared by mixing one part household bleach with nine parts water by volume. However, this bleach solution can be highly corrosive to certain metals. For best results, harvest only as much scion wood as can be used for grafting during the same day. Select only healthy scion wood that is free from insect, disease, or winter damage. Be sure the stock plants are of good quality, healthy, and true to type.

Scion wood that is frozen at harvest often knits more slowly and in lower percentage. If large quantities of scion wood must be harvested at one time, follow these steps:. NOTE: In grafting, as well as budding, the vascular cambium of the scion or bud must be aligned with the vascular cambium of rootstock. In woody plants the cambium is a very thin ribbon of actively dividing cells located just below the bark.

The cambium produces conductive tissue for the actively growing plant Figure 1. This vascular cambium initiates callus tissue at the graft and bud unions in addition to stimulating tissue growth on the basal ends of many vegetative cuttings before they have rooted.

Types of Grafts Nurserymen can choose from a number of different types of grafts. This section describes only those basic types of grafts used on nursery crop plants. Cleft Graft One of the simplest and most popular forms of grafting, cleft grafting Figure 2 , is a method for top working both flowering and fruiting trees apples, cherries, pears, and peaches in order to change varieties.

Cleft grafting is also used to propagate varieties of camellias that are difficult to root. This type of grafting is usually done during the winter and early spring while both scion and rootstock are still dormant. Cleft grafting may be performed on main stems or on lateral or scaffold branches. The rootstock used for cleft grafting should range from 1 to 4 inches in diameter and should be straight grained.

Scions that are between 6 and 8 inches long are usually the easiest to use. NOTE: The temperature of grafting wax is critical. It must be hot enough to flow but not so hot as to kill plant tissue. Recently, paint-like sealants have replaced wax in many areas because they are easier to use and require no heating.

Bark Graft Bark grafting Figure 3 is used primarily to top work flowering and fruiting trees. In contrast to cleft grafting, this technique can be applied to rootstock of larger diameter 4 to 12 inches and is done during early spring when the bark slips easily from the wood but before major sap flow. The rootstock is severed with a sharp saw, leaving a clean cut as with cleft grafting.

Side-Veneer Graft At one time the side-veneer graft Figure 4 was a popular technique for grafting varieties of camellias and rhododendrons that are difficult to root. Currently, it is the most popular way to graft conifers, especially those having a compact or dwarf form.

Side-veneer grafting is usually done on potted rootstock. Splice Graft Splice grafting Figure 5 is used to join a scion onto the stem of a rootstock or onto an intact rootpiece.

In splice grafting, both the stock and scion must be of the same diameter. Whip and Tongue Graft The whip and tongue technique Figure 6 is most commonly used to graft nursery crops or woody ornamentals. The technique is similar to splice grafting except that the whip on the rootstock holds the tongue of the scion in place and vice versa. This leaves both hands free to wrap the joint.

For the whip and tongue graft, make similar cuts on both the stock and scion. These cuts should be made with a single draw of the knife and should have a smooth surface so that the two can develop a good graft union. Up to this point, rootstock and scion are cut the same as for a splice graft. Saddle Graft Saddle grafting Figure 7 is a relatively easy technique to learn and once mastered can be performed quite rapidly. The stock may be either field-grown or potted.

Both rootstock and scion should be the same diameter. For best results, use saddle grafting on dormant stock in mid- to late winter. Stock should not be more than 1 inch in diameter. All of the preceding techniques are used to top work horticultural crops for a particular purpose. Occasionally, however, grafting is used to repair injured or diseased plants.

Two common techniques available for this purpose are bridge grafting and inarch grafting. Bridge Graft Bridge grafting Figure 8 is used to "bridge" a diseased or damaged area of a plant, usually at or near the base of the trunk. Such damage commonly results from contact with grading or lawn maintenance equipment, or it may be caused by rodents, cold temperatures, or disease organisms.

The bridge graft provides support as well as a pipeline that allows water and nutrients to move across the damaged area. Bridge grafts are usually done in early spring just before active plant growth begins. They may be performed any time the bark on the injured plant "slips.

Inarch Graft Inarching, like bridge grafting, is used to bypass or support a damaged or weakened area of a plant stem Figure 9. Unlike bridge grafting, the scion can be an existing shoot, sucker, or watersprout that is already growing below and extending above the injury. The scion may also be a shoot of the same species as the injured plant growing on its own root system next to the main trunk of the damaged tree.

With the inarching technique, the tip of the scion is grafted in above the injury using the same method as for bark or bridge grafting. Budding is a grafting technique in which a single bud from the desired scion is used rather than an entire scion containing many buds. Most budding is done just before or during the growing season. However some species may be budded during the winter while they are dormant.

Budding requires the same precautions as grafting. Be sure that the scion and rootstock are compatible, that the scion has mature buds, and that the cambia of the scion and rootstock match.

Be especially careful to prevent drying or contamination of grafting materials. With practice, the speed with which the process can be performed and the percentage of successful grafts those that "take" - should equal or surpass those of other grafting techniques used on the same species. Generally, deciduous fruit and shade trees are well suited to budding.

Since budding is generally done less than 4 inches above the soil surface, leaves and side branches must be removed from this portion of the rootstock to create a clean, smooth working area. To avoid quickly dulling the knife, remove any soil from the rootstock where the cut will be made just before actual budding takes place.

The stem can be cleaned by brushing or rubbing it gently by hand or with a piece of soft cloth. Preparing the Budwood Collect scion or budwood early in the day while temperatures are cool and the plants are still fully turgid.

The best vegetative buds usually come from the inside canopy of the tree on the current season's growth.

Grafting Fruit Trees Grafting Fruit Trees

Grafting or graftage [1] is a horticultural technique whereby tissues of plants are joined so as to continue their growth together. The success of this joining requires that the vascular tissues grow together and such joining is called inosculation. The technique is most commonly used in asexual propagation of commercially grown plants for the horticultural and agricultural trades. In most cases, one plant is selected for its roots and this is called the stock or rootstock. The other plant is selected for its stems , leaves , flowers , or fruits and is called the scion or cion. In stem grafting, a common grafting method, a shoot of a selected, desired plant cultivar is grafted onto the stock of another type.


The scion continues to grow as if it were on its own roots and produces fruit of its kind. Grafts are more successfully made between varieties of the same species or​.


Compatible Fruit Tree Grafting

Graft , in horticulture , the joining together of plant parts by means of tissue regeneration. Grafting is the act of placing a portion of one plant bud or scion into or on a stem , root , or branch of another stock in such a way that a union will be formed and the partners will continue to grow. The part of the combination that provides the root is called the stock; the added piece is called the scion. When more than two parts are involved, the middle piece is called the interstock.

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  1. Millicent D.

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